Seminar 3 Objectives - Seminar 3 Objectives The...

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Seminar 3 Objectives- The Integumentary System Describe the main structural features of the epidermis, and explain the functional  significance of each. Stratum Basale —Deepest layer attached to basement membrane by hemidesmosomes. Forms epidermal ridges (fingerprints). Contains basal cells (stem cells), melanocytes, and Merkel  cells. Stratum Spinosum —Produced by division of stratum basale, epithelium thickness increases  as division continues.   Eight to   ten layers of keratinocytes bound by desmosomes. Cells  shrink until cytoskeletons stick out. Contain dendritic (Langerhans) cells, active in immune  response. Stratum Granulosum— Produce protein fibers, creating tightly interlocked layer of keratin  (tough, fibrous, makes up hair/nails) surrounded by keratohyalin (Dense granules, cross-link  keratin fibers) Stratum Lucidum —Covers stratum granulosum. Thick skin only. Stratum Corneum —Exposed surface of skin. 15-30 layers of keratinized cells. Shed every 2  weeks. Protective barrier that resists abrasion and bacterial entry. Water resistant. Describe the types and functions of epithelial tissue Functions: covers exposed surfaces (skin), lines internal passageways, forms exocrine glands  in skin Squamou:  thin & flat o Simple—Most delicate type. Regions where absorption or diffusion take place o Stratified—Strong, protects against physical and chemical attached Keratinized: keratin protein adds strength, water resistance, and protects  against dehydration Non-keratinized: resist abrasion, but will dry out unless kept moist Cuboidal: square shaped Columnar: tall rectangles Describe how epithelial tissue establishes the framework of the epidermis Explain what accounts for individual differences in skin color, and discuss the response of  melanocytes to sunlight exposure.  Epidermal pigmentation o Carotene= orange yellow pigment in epidermal cells and fatty tissues of dermis.
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o Melanin=yellow brown/ black pigment produced by melanocytes Blood circulation o Blood vessels dilate from heat, skin reddens o Blood flow decreases, skin pales o Cyanosis= bluish skin tint from severe oxygen reduction Illness o Jaundice= bile buildup results in yellow color o Pituitary tumor= excess melanocyte stimulating hormone o
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