Objectives 3 - Objectives#3 Chapter 6 Lipids and membranes...

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Objectives #3 Chapter 6 - Lipids and membranes 1. What structural features do all lipids have in common? Contain reduced carbons (?*)→ high energy storage, hydrogen, and oxygen Hydrophobic, so they are insoluble in polar solvents like water. o Soluble in non-polar organic solvents o Due to nonpolar covalent bonds between H and C Contain hydrocarbons (molecules with only H an C) o Non polar because electron sharing is equal o Hydrophobic due to lack of partial charge o Double bond between 2 carbons results in C atoms being locked into place and unable to move → kink in hydrocarbon chain o Isoprenoids= chains of hydrocarbons 2. What distinguishes hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules? Hydrophobic— lack charge or are highly electronegative. Able to form H bonds that link polar molecules into a network that resists parting to admit molecules that cannot form such bonds Hydrophilic—polar or charged 3. Of the major types of macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and lipids), which are hydrophilic and which are hydrophobic? Carbs, nucleic acids= hydrophilic Lipids= hydrophobic Proteins can be either, depending on side chains 4. How do lipids differ from the other three macromolecules covered in Bio 161? (Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, monomer, polymer, condensation reaction) Lipids are not polymers Ester linkages (bond between glycerol and fatty acids) Make up cell membranes Less oxygen and nitrogen Always hydrophobic 5. Make a simple drawing of a phospholipid and label the important parts. Also, indicate which parts of the molecule are polar or nonpolar. Glycerol linked to phosphate group and two hydrocarbon chains (fatty acids or isprenoids) o Fatty acid chains→ Bacteria/Eukarya o Isoprenoid chains→ Archaea Phosphate group bonded to charged or polar small organic molecule *See back of chapter notes for drawing
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6. Draw/Describe why (at the molecular level) oil and water don’t mix. Electrons in water molecules are more attracted to the oxygen than the hydrogens, giving O a negative and H a positive charge → polar solute. Oil molecules are nonpolar and uncharged and therefore more attracted to each other than to water. 7. What are the characteristics of an “amphipathic molecule”? What are examples of this type of molecule? (hydrophobic, hydrophilic, polar) Amphipathic= compounds that contain hydrophilic and hydrophobic elements o Phospholipids o Cholesterol (polar hydroxyl group) Amphipathic molecules arranged themselves so polar parts are in water and nonpolar parts are excluded o Allows formation of membranes 8. Start with three carbons bound together (–C–C–C–). What individual atoms or functional groups could you add to the carbons to make the molecule hydrophobic?
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