Lec17_Agroforestry_08 - HORT 460 Cropping Systems Ecology...

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Unformatted text preview: HORT 460 Cropping Systems Ecology MODULE 111. Case Studies Agroforestry Agroforestry is sometimes broadly defined to include almost any cropping system that involves woody perennials, from monocultures of fruit, nut, timber, and plantation trees, to complex tropical intercropping systems. We will use the following definition used by the International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF): "A groforestry denotes a sustainable land and crop management system that strives to increase yields on a continuing basis, by combining the production of woody forestry crops (including fruit and other tree crops) with arable or field crops and/or animals simultaneously or sequentially on the same unit of land, and applying management practices tljat are compatible with the cultural practices of the local population. ” l A. Unique features of agroforestry systems 1. Trees are often multipurpose (food, forage, timber, fuel, medicine), and may be naturally occurring. The cropping system may work around existing trees with some modification by thinning and pruning. 2. Long-term self -sustainability is often a goal, and pattern of crop planting may mimic natural forest succession. 3. Maximizing productivity on scarce land resources through enhancing complementarity among crop species (and animals). 4. Socioeconomic factors- although can be part of large-scale mechanized agriculture, many agroforestry practices are best suited to small farmers in marginal areas of the tropics. B. Classification Agrisilviculture: Usually refers to systems where annual crops are grown with existing trees grown for timber or firewood. However, can more broadly describe temperate “forest farming”, where annual or perennial crops are grown with trees grown for mixed uses. Examples would be sugar maple + ginseng; wood lot and/or nut grove + mushroom + mixed small fruit crops. Silvo-pastoral systems: Multipurpose trees used with grazing animals. Multipurpose forest tree production: Moderate to intensive management of native forest tree species for multiple purposes. Complex multi-story tropical home gardens: Intensive systems that may include 100 - 200 plant species on small land areas near the home, providing year-round food, herbs, medicine, wood, etc. C. Tree species used in agroforestry l. Familiar fruit and nut crops such as apples, peaches, citrus, grapes, walnuts, almonds 2. Timber species, such as pine, oak, cedar, tropical hardwoods 3. Plantation crops such as coconut, oil palm, rubber, coffee, tea, cacao, cashew. 4. Trees are underutilized in agriculture. Table 1 gives a partial list of some tree species used as food crops in some areas. Currently there are "chemical prospecting" ventures going on in many developing countries seeking native trees species with unique human value for medicine or other purposes. D. Effects of trees on agricultural ecosystems. (See Fig. 1) l. Microclimate: a. Trees reduce light energy reaching the surface. This can have positive or negative effects, depending on crop species beneath. b. Obviously, less light can reduce photosynthesis of crops below, but shade-adapted crops can have improved photosynthesis (less photoinhibition), and beneficial cooling effect may compensate for less light. c. Trees are often used specifically as wind breaks. 2. Soil nutrients: a. Nutrient pumping-- bringing nutrients up from soil depths, beyond the reach of annual crops and depositing as leaf litter-- can be very beneficial to crops and reduce loss of nutrients from the ecosystem. b. Many tree species used in agroforestry are nitrogen-fixing. 3. Soil physical properties: a. Trees are sometimes "contour planted" in hilly areas to reduce soil erosion. b. Trees increase organic matter which improves water holding and cation exchange capacity of the soils. c. Rainfall interception by the tree canopy and by leaf litter reduces soil damage from heavy droplets. 4. Hydrology: a. Hydraulic lift of water from lower soil depths can become available to shallow-rooted annual crops. b. In many humid tropical areas the moisture collected by tree canopies and deposited on the crops below by "fog drip" is a significant source of the crop water supply. c. Tree effects on microclimate and physical soil quality (above) also can serve to improve the water use efficiency of the system. 5. Biology: a. Soil microflora populations that develop in agroforestry systems are usually beneficial to nutrient cycling and crop production. b. When trees are grown with appropriate crop species, facilitation, can occur in terms of pest and disease control. 6. Crop productivity: a. In some cases, crops grown beneath tree crops have lower yields, but this is expected and considered better than fallow (Table 2). b. In some cases, significant increases in productivity have been reported (LER > 1.0; see Table 3) E. Socioeconomic advantages to agroforestry in marginal areas 1. Some tree species can be productive on marginal soils, with minimal inputs. 2. Some tree species provide product in the off—season, when no other opportunities for crop production are present. 3. The right mix of tree and crop species can reduce the need for commercial inputs and increase efficiency of productivity on a small land area. F. Constraints to agroforestry 1. May need several years for complete return on initial investments. 2. With such long-term investment, land ownership becomes an issue. 3. Complex intercropping systems do not match well with mechanized agriculture. G. Planting arrangements (Fig. 2) 1. Boundary planting, windbreaks, shelter belts 2. Simply planting around existing trees in partially cleared field 3. Direct intercropping, often strip intercropping (alley cropping). 4. Rotational fallow, clearing trees every several years, mimicing forest successional sequence. 5. Intensive home gardens (Fig. 3; Table 4). H. Some specific examples 1. The "raised field" system in some valleys of central Mexico have been self—sustaining for hundreds of years (Fig. 4a,b). Nutrients are replenished by boundary plantings of nitrogen-fixing tree species (alder) and leguminous annual crops, as well as nutrient runoff I‘E’om hillsides during the rainy period 2. The Javanese "Talun-kebun". In the kebun, the first year, a mix of annual crops is intercropped with tree seedlings, with good economic return on the annual crops. This is followed by a 2 -3 year "kebuncampuran" stage where half-grown perennials begin to take up more space. There is less income during this kebun-campuran stage, but soil resources become enriched and perennials are establishing. The fields may be nearly abandoned for a year or two to let the perennials completely take over, reaching the "talun" stage, with mature woody perennials with both economic and biophysical value. Eventually the forest may be cleared back to the kebun stage, or switched to rice production for a period of time, and the cycle repeated. 3. The J avanes "pedarangan" home garden system commonly contains 100 or more plant species, ranging from low growing vegetables and herbs, to bananas and papayas, to towering coconut and wood tree species such as Ablizzia. Of these, about 42% provide building materials and fuelwood, 18% are fruit trees, 14% are vegetables, the remainder are herbs, :nedicinals and ornamentals. 4. In India, many crops are intercropped with coconut (Fig. 5). 5. There are some efforts to rejuvenate the ancient “satoyama” landscapes of Japan, which were a sustainable mosaic of fields, ponds, forests, and villages. Forest leaves were used as fertilizer for village rice paddies; wood was used for construction and heating, bamboo shoots collected for food. 6. “Swidden” agriculture, also referred to as “shifting” or “slash and burn” agriculture often has characteristics of agroforestry in some or all phases. 7. Some other examples are presented in Table 5. REFERENCES Crews TE and SR Gliessman. 1991. Raised field agriculture in Tlaxcala, Mexico: An ecosystem perspective on maintenanace of soil fertility. Amer J Alternative A gric 6(1): 9-16. Farrell JG and MA Altieri. 1995. Agroforestry sytems. IN Altieri M (ed) A giipecology.‘ The Science of Sustainable Agriculture. 2nd Edition. Westview Press. Boulder, CO. Chap 12. Kobori H and RB Primack. 2004. Conservation for Satoyama, the traditional landscape of Japan. Arnoldia 62: 4-10. Shaoting Yin (translated by M Fiskesjo). 2001. People and Forests. Yunnan Education Publishing House. Yunnan, Peoples Republic of China. Spec: / Ct A Important (ores! species yielding lood es Part used as food A) Trees Aeglc marmelos Anacardium occidental: Almond squmnosa Artocaipus conununis A hamphyllus B V. H . B.purpunca B. variegata Buchanaru'a lanzan Cordia dichme Dillau‘a indica D. pauagma Datdrocalamus micms Emblica ofl'icinalis Ficus hispida F. palmata F. rccemosa Madhuca indica Mangtfcra indica Mon'nga alafcra Mo‘rus alba Phoaulx sylvestris 5,. . . . Tamarindus indica B) Shrubs Asparagus filicinu: Carissa caratdis Salvadara oleoida Ziziphus spp. Pulp of ripened fruits Fruit; seeds very nutritive Fruit Fruit Ripened fruit eaten as fruit; unripened used as vegetable Tender shoots used as vegetable Flower buds used as vegetable Flower buds used as vegetable Seeds edible, very nutritive, yield edible oil Fruit used as vegetable or pickled Ripened fruit eaten as fruit; unripened used as vegetable Flower bud and young fruit Young shoots cooked for vegetable or pickled Fruit eaten or pickled Green fruit used as vegetable Fruit Ripened fruit eaten as fruit; unripened cooked as vegetables Flowers and ripened fruit eaten; seeds yield edible oil Fruit ‘ Flower and fruit used as vegetable Fruit Fruit Fruit Fruit Tuberous roots and tender shoots wten as vegetable Fruit and flower bud Fruit Fruit Fruit r50va ~, Swivecfl) Alp, \di 71‘ 14?”: “Van-ivy: ?V<V\‘L3V\w ov—Jk lama/“Rog ABM «g 25.4.. *i .€x.$fl£l\ a): ‘gmhh fififlirv!» U gal) N ll Au . 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Yield under coconut Percentage yield compared to (t ha“1) crop grown in open Crop Yield Maize 1.17 37 Soya bean (Glycine max) 0.41 34 Black gram (Vigna mungo) 0.58 85 Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) 0.93 45 Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) 0.63 95 Jute (Corchorus spp.) 0.52 29 Kenaf (Hibiscus spp.) 1.47 30 Ramie (Boehmeria nivea) 0.16 135 Taro (Colocasia esculenta) 5.48 367 Cassava (Manihot esculenta) 0.98 14 Arrowroot (Maranta amndinacea) 0.98 14 Paco/ct: (Cf t “AA/{4 “Wt V—QJI‘R‘V‘ f. ‘70 ./ ' ‘ 3 / a 6 Land Equivalent Ratios oi agrotorestry systems in India LER Trees/crops Crop Tree Total Source 1. Leucaena—wheat—rice 0.81 0.52 1.33 51th etal.,1990 2. Leucaena—coriander 0.83 1.22 2.05 Singh etal..1990 3. Leucaena—rice—green gram 0.81 0.68 1.49 Sith etal., 1990 1.29 1.27 2.36 Sith etal. 1990 4. Leucaena—groundnut 0.47 0.70 1.17 Raoetal.1990 5. Leucaena—millet 0.41 0.96 1.37 Corlett etal. 1992 6. Perennial pigeonpea—groundnut 0.64 0.97 1.61 Odongo et al., unpublished 0.12 1.39 1.51 Tv_<4 _ Q-V‘Q'fl Ihlazv majh‘o-vu f rt'hloiu’ cf? A/f’v-n (rd/x, 5) @wt: C111 4J5‘quud, I K {‘7 6/ “i e é;(iic“fu (Ark evap;€j);ft Trees in fields Rotational fallow Height (m) 20 F: 79 3 (Sgt V\V KA.‘ ‘5 S cum (:4 Tchkc 2 i t; u ’ 47h ,_ -III‘- .-. ‘ (“Hit A schematic aspect of the vegetation in a home garden in West Java. Replacement trees are shaded. ; a ' Q L/ Characteristics of home garden systems at two sites in Mexico Lowland site Upland site - y Characteristics (Cupilco, N = 3) (Tepeyanco, N = 4) (S 6, “Va. 2 Garden size 0.70 ha 0.34 ha 5 CNN Useful species per garden 55 33 Diversity (Shannon index) 3.84 2.43 Fr}. 7-7 Leaf area index 4.5 3.2 3 to *5) % Cover 96.7 85.3 % Light transmission 21.5 30.5 Perennial species (%) 52.3 24.5 Tree species 17%) 7 7 30.7 7 7 12.3 Ornamental plants (%) 7.0 9.0 Medicinal plants (%) 2.0 2.8 Data from Allison (1983). CSe \Q/‘u. t (Va-0&3 (aw-4} Glg-{Sjwua. “I?! .‘3‘. Al-lwiix‘fi 14?,Y‘C‘s . t. (Ari—(c. g Recognizable Detrltus: ._ aider leaves, aquatlc plants Decomposed Organic fr Matter: silt texture 2.0 |.O 0.5 0.0 meter This side of the l : This side of the zanja excavated l zanja excavated within I 1 3-4 years ago the last year elephant foot yam --------- J F M A M J J A S O N Schedule of some intercrops with coconuts and the average rainfall pattern at Kasaragod on the west coast of India (Hair, 1979). (a) Irrigation to standing crop. (b) Sweet potato, upland rice. (SEQ-3va ; Suva!» cw flue; Phat species In agroforestry systems Regions/Area 1 1. Alluvial region 2. Arid and semi- arid areas 3. Nor-them hill areas 4. Central region 5. Southern region 6. Coastal areas 7. Plantation crop areas of south and eastern states 8. North- eastern areas Agricultural components 2 Rice, wheat, sugar-cane, pulses, oilseeds Maize, jcmar, bajra, small millets, wheat, pulses, etc. Maize. paddy, wheat, fruits, vegetables, etc. Wheat, rice, maize, jowar, bajra, pulses, oilsccds, etc. Rice, tobacco, chillis. sugar-cane Rice Tea, coffee, cocoa, etc., banana, black pepper, pineapple Paddy ‘ CM C92) -\,\v p1 ~ Forestry components 3 Eucalyan hybrid, E. tacticomis, Populu: deltoides, Dalbergia 511500, Moms alba, Azadlraclua indica, Acacia niloa'ca, Bombax ca'ba, etc. Acacia nilotica, A megal, A. tom'lis, Prompts cincraria, P. chilatsis, Eucalyan carnaldulam's, Azadirachla indica, Ziziphus spp. Grewia opdva, Mortu- sauna, Ccla's malls, Quacus spp.,Alblzia chmanszs,’ ' Prunus spp., Populus cillata, etc. Bamboos, Mangifera indica, Dalbagia .u'ssoo, Mon'nga oleifera, Acacia nilau'ca, Azadiraclua indica, Terminalia arjuna, Albizia spp., Tectona grandis, Eucalyptus hybrid, etc. Caman'na equisefifolia, Eucalyptus hyblid, E tacticomis, Acacia spp., Albizia spp., Datdrocalamus Tamar-indw- indica, Santalwn album, Amcwdium occidauale Caalmha cqulxdfolia, Cocos nucifera, Areca catcchu. Albizia odorotissima, A. Erythrina spp., Gh'ticidia spp. Dendrocalamus Cocos nucifaa, Areca catcchu, Anocarpus spp., Tami- nalia myriocarpa, Diptaocarpus macro- carpus, Anthoccphalus chinamls 'DJA; L}? 70> ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/13/2008 for the course HORT 4600 taught by Professor Wolfe,d.w. during the Spring '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Lec17_Agroforestry_08 - HORT 460 Cropping Systems Ecology...

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