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combustionLecture - Lectures on FUNDAMENTALS of COMBUSTION...

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April, 00 Fundamentals of Gas Conbustion #1 Lectures on FUNDAMENTALS of COMBUSTION and DETONATION by Merrill Beckstead - BYU Opportunity is missed by most people because it is dressed in overalls and looks like work. .… Thomas Alva Edison
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April, 00 Fundamentals of Gas Conbustion #2 Pretty Pictures of Combustion BYU flat flame burner - propane gas with coal particles BYU/ACERC F-14 injector burner with a swirling propane flame
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April, 00 Fundamentals of Gas Conbustion #3 Outline of Lecture Fundamental Combustion Concepts (Gases) Flame Speed Kinetics Adiabatic Flame Temperature Thermodynamics Detonation Concepts (Gases) Detonation Velocity and Presssure Thermodynamics Fundamental Propellant Combustion Characteristics Ingredient Mixtures Burning Rate Kinetics Performance/Adiabatic Flame Temperature Thermodynamics High Explosives/Detonation Characteristics Typical Explosives & Mixtures Detonation Velocity and Presssure Thermodynamics
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April, 00 Fundamentals of Gas Conbustion #4 Premixed Flame Characteristics Adiabatic Flame Temperature ==> determined by thermodynamics Flame Speed ==> determined by chemical kinetics Ideal Flames (stoichiometric) for methane CH 4 + 2 O 2 ==> CO 2 + 2 H 2 O 2 moles of O 2 to balance C in CO 2 and H in H 2 O: F/O = 0.5 (stoichiometric!) for ethane C 2 H 6 + 3.5 O 2 ==> 2 CO 2 + 3 H 2 O 3.5 moles of O 2 to balance 2C in CO 2 and 3H in H 2 O: F/O=0.286 stoichiometric! Adiabatic flame temperature and product species are calculated from thermo- chemical codes, PEP, Edwards, NASA-Lewis, etc. Actual methane flame products CH 4 + 2 O 2 ==> 0.42 CO 2 + 1.46 H 2 O + 0.58 CO + 0.27 H 2 + 0.35 OH + .… Actual ethane flame products C 2 H 6 + 3.5 O 2 ==> 0.81 CO 2 + 2.12 H 2 O + 1.19 CO + 0.42 H 2 + 0.59 OH + ....
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April, 00 Fundamentals of Gas Conbustion #5 Adiabatic Flame Temperature Calculation Adiabatic implies H = 0. Therefore, for a reacting system: n i H i = n i H i reactants products where H i = H fi + c pi dT T o T f Substituting and taking the reactants at T o , the initial temperature n i ( H fi + c pi dT T o T f ) = n i H fi products reactants Now, solve for T f . T f depends on H f of both reactants and products; the number of moles of both reactants and products; and the heat capacities of products only.
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April, 00 Fundamentals of Gas Conbustion #6 Adiabatic Flame Temperature Calculation For example, For methane CH 4 + 2 O 2 CO 2 + 2 H 2 O and for ethane C 2 H 6 + 3.5 O 2 2 CO 2 + 3 H 2 O Products and O 2 are very similar for both fuels, the main variations being in the n i and H f of the fuel. Therefore, the T f values depend primarily on H f of the fuel. Gas Formula H f Kcal/mole Moles O 2 T f (K) Carbon Monoxide CO -26.42 0.5 2977 Methane CH 4 -17.9 2 3054 Hydrogen H 2 0 0.5 3080 Ethane C 2 H 6 -20.2 3.5 3086 Propane C 3 H 8 -24.8 5 3096 Butane C 4 H 10 -29.8 6.5 3101 Benzene C 6 H 6 19.8 7.5 3136 Acetylene C 2 H 2 54.2 2.5 3342 Typical Adiabatic Flame Temperatures T f depends on thermodynamics ==> primarily on H f of the reactants
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April, 00 Fundamentals of Gas Conbustion #7 Calculated Adiabatic Flame Temperatures 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Flame Temperature (K) 0.1 1 10 Moles Air Various Gas Flame Temperatures c monoxide benzene ammonia acetylene Methane Hydrogen 1 atm H2 C2H2 C6H6 CH4 CO NH3
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