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1 AIS 101 REVITALIZATION I. SURVIVAL THROUGH INDUSTRY A. Traditional subsistence activities B. Ceremonies and rituals of thanksgiving C. Jobs on and off reservation 1. On reservation: a. Gardens b. Raised horses & cattle for sale c. Worked for BIA in variety of jobs (clerk, policemen, etc.) 2. Off reservation: a. Day labor for white ranchers & farmers b. Loaders (railroad, ships, etc.) c. Selling crafts to tourists d. Army scouts e. Indians set up tipi villages so tourists could see how “real” Indians lived f. Photographers took pictures of Indians or staged meetings between Indian employees and tourists D. Entertainment business (Wild West Shows) 1. Indians dressed like Plains Indians & “attacked” white soldiers and wagon trains E. Medicine Shows. 1. Entertained whites by dancing, drumming, & singing while decked out in their fanciest outfits (Plains Indians style) 2. “Snake Oil” salesmen told customers their products were based on secret Indian ingredients 3. Medicine Shows were very popular form of revenue and entertainment – provided jobs and relief from boredom of reservation for Indians II. SURVIVAL THROUGH TRADITION & CHANGE A. Retained knowledge of medicinal plants & language B. Strengthened community ties by studying plants and animals of their regions C. Retained tradition values and material culture (baskets, Kachinas, pottery), but also incorporated new materials and designs (manufactured beads, canvas) D. Sports and Gambling 1. Jim Thorpe – won Olympic gold medal for decathalon, voted best athlete for first half f 20 th century 2. Cherokee Will Rogers famous rodeo cowboy before being a actor 3. Indian cowboys from many tribes excelled at rodeos
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2 4. Lacrosse and field hockey originated with Indians 5. New sports such as football and baseball Indians excelled at E. Music, Song & Dance 1. Continuity from pre-reservation era to present 2. PowWow – celebration shared by many tribes (people are supposed to set aside their anger and animosity so that community at large may enjoy celebration of being Indian) 3. Hopi Snake Dances a. Moqui agents tried to suppress, but Antelope & Snake Societies offered dances to fulfill obligation and remember reverence for rain b. People continue to hold Snake Dances at pueblos every August c. Snake Dances linked the pueblo people with spirits who control the elements and make survival possible III. SURVIVAL THROUGH RELIGION A. Prayer feathers B. Sacred plants in their prayer rituals *sage, tobacco, cedar, sweetgrass) C. Bathing in smoke from scared plants protected and purified D. Sweatbaths – symbolically permit Native Americans to enter bosom of earth through tiny sweat lodge and experience transformation E. Visions – brought on by sweats or other means F. Funeral and Mourning Complexes 1. Some change over time as Indians became Christians, but elements of ritual, ceremony, song, prayer & practices remained the same or slightly modified.
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