GOVT 2305 - Study Guide 2 - Chapter 4 Define political...

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Chapter 4 Define political culture - the set of core beliefs in a country that help shape how people behave politically and what they believe government should do Understand the significance of individualism •Americans believe that individuals have inalienable rights •belief that one's fate is in one's own hands and that you'll get what you deserve in the long run •Americans believe that people are naturally competitive •these beliefs affect attitudes toward what should be done about inequality Chapter 5 Define public opinion the aggregated political attitudes of ordinary people as revealed by surveys. Understand random sampling the selection of survey respondents by chance, with equal probability of being selected, to ensure their representativeness of the whole population. Define political socialization and explain the agents of socialization – •Political socialization is the process by which individuals come to have certain core beliefs and political attitudes. •Agents of socialization Those institutions and individuals that shape the core beliefs and attitudes of people (such as our families, schools, and so on) Define ideology a coherent system of interlocking attitudes and beliefs about politics, the economy and the role of the government Know what the presidential approval ratings reveal •a presidents standing with the public, indicated by the percentage of Americans who tell survey interviewers that they approve a presidents "handling of his job" •indicator of popularity Know the differences between conservatives and liberals. •economic conservative - economic liberty and freedom with little government interference •economic liberal - government regulation is necessary in ensuring equal opportunity •social liberal - favor free choices and rights (abortion, homosexuality, etc.) •social conservative - prefer government enforcement of order and "traditional values" oppose abortion and gay rights Note the policy preferences when it comes to spending programs. •policy preferences refers to citizens' ideas about what policies they want government to pursue •numbers show that Americans think we are spending too little on fighting crime, providing health insurance, etc.
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•consistent support to social security, Medicare, environment protection programs, and disease research •people think too much is being spent on foreign aid Chapter 6 Know the roles of mass media in a democracy. •watchdog – scrutinizing the actions of government officials •clarifying electoral choices – what the political parties stand for and how the candidates shape up in terms of personal character, knowledge, experience, and positions on the issues •providing policy information – present a diverse, full, and enlightening sets of facts and ideas about public policy Understand the significance of alternative media.
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