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Sociology 2259 Midterm Review Nov 4thLecture #1 Introduction Deviance: The "perceived" violation of normsCriminology:is the study of crime in societyCriminology vs. Sociology oAll crimes are considered deviant but not all deviance is considered a crime oCriminology is therefore a subset of deviance Norms: Are formal and informal rules of conduct for membership in a groupFolkways: Informal rules for acceptable behavior within a group. etiquette, manners, etcMores: Formal rules for conduct within a group, usually codified Ex. Criminal codeConformity: Most people conform most of the time Acceptance: membership in society is principally a question of acceptance, within sociology assumed that most people desire acceptance Informal social control: sanctions applied to individuals violating folkwaysAgents of Informal: other members of societyFormal social control: sanctions applied to individuals violating moresAgents of formal control: police, military, state, teachers, social workers, doctors, psychiatristsAcceptable deviance: tolerable differences within society, Saints vs. SinnersoDeviances can be either positive or negativeoStigma of excellence: being defined as deviant for being too good Ex. Mother Theresa Features of deviance: oCulturally specificoVaries within cultures, in time and spaceoDifferent norms for different members of societyoDeviant subculturesoDegrees of deviance
Lecture #2 Sociology of Deviance Why Study deviance 1) The vicarious experience (living through others)2) Reform (understanding, rehabilitation, excusing, out runs tested knowledge)3) Self Protection & Sophistication (animal instincts) 4) Understanding Oneself and others5) intellectual curiosityAcademic Views of DevianceoPrior to the 1960's academics focused on "outsiders"oIf you hold power in society, you are less likely to be affected by its rulesObjective/subjectiveObjective Characteristics of devianceoValue neutral social scienceoStatisticsoUse methods of the natural sciencesoDiscover universal laws that govern social behavioroReality is out there to be discoveredSome methods we used for non human research subjects (rocks, sand) we use for humansLaws that govern the rules is what we sociologists look for in society Objective definitions of devianceThe goal is to find something inherent in a person, behavior, or characteristic that is necessarily deviantMost frequently cited:1) Statistical rarity2) Harmfulness3) Societal Reaction4) Normative violation1) Statistical rarity
oNot common in academia but popular in everyday languageoIf a behavior or characteristic is not typical, then it is deviant2) HarmfulnessoPhysical and emotional harm (micro level, individuals)oFunctional harmoOntological harm (chaos, fear, refusal to believe, macro level)oHarm does not distinguish deviance in 3 waysEvidence that deviance is harmful is often exaggerated or invented by those who want tocontrol itSometimes the greatest harm of deviance lies in the cost of it suppression