Sociology 2259 Midterm Review - Sociology 2259 Midterm Review Nov 4th Lecture#1 Introduction Deviance The\"perceived violation of norms Criminology is

Sociology 2259 Midterm Review - Sociology 2259 Midterm...

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Sociology 2259 Midterm Review Nov 4th Lecture #1 Introduction Deviance : The "perceived" violation of norms Criminology: is the study of crime in society Criminology vs. Sociology o All crimes are considered deviant but not all deviance is considered a crime o Criminology is therefore a subset of deviance Norms: Are formal and informal rules of conduct for membership in a group Folkways: Informal rules for acceptable behavior within a group. etiquette, manners, etc Mores: Formal rules for conduct within a group, usually codified Ex. Criminal code Conformity: Most people conform most of the time Acceptance: membership in society is principally a question of acceptance, within sociology assumed that most people desire acceptance Informal social control: sanctions applied to individuals violating folkways Agents of Informal: other members of society Formal social control: sanctions applied to individuals violating mores Agents of formal control: police, military, state, teachers, social workers, doctors, psychiatrists Acceptable deviance: tolerable differences within society, Saints vs. Sinners o Deviances can be either positive or negative o Stigma of excellence: being defined as deviant for being too good Ex. Mother Theresa Features of deviance: o Culturally specific o Varies within cultures, in time and space o Different norms for different members of society o Deviant subcultures o Degrees of deviance
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Lecture #2 Sociology of Deviance Why Study deviance 1) The vicarious experience (living through others) 2) Reform (understanding, rehabilitation, excusing, out runs tested knowledge) 3) Self Protection & Sophistication (animal instincts) 4) Understanding Oneself and others 5) intellectual curiosity Academic Views of Deviance o Prior to the 1960's academics focused on "outsiders" o If you hold power in society, you are less likely to be affected by its rules Objective/subjective Objective Characteristics of deviance o Value neutral social science o Statistics o Use methods of the natural sciences o Discover universal laws that govern social behavior o Reality is out there to be discovered Some methods we used for non human research subjects (rocks, sand) we use for humans Laws that govern the rules is what we sociologists look for in society Objective definitions of deviance The goal is to find something inherent in a person, behavior, or characteristic that is necessarily deviant Most frequently cited: 1) Statistical rarity 2) Harmfulness 3) Societal Reaction 4) Normative violation 1) Statistical rarity
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o Not common in academia but popular in everyday language o If a behavior or characteristic is not typical, then it is deviant 2) Harmfulness o Physical and emotional harm (micro level, individuals) o Functional harm o Ontological harm (chaos, fear, refusal to believe, macro level) o Harm does not distinguish deviance in 3 ways Evidence that deviance is harmful is often exaggerated or invented by those who want to control it Sometimes the greatest harm of deviance lies in the cost of it suppression
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