Lecture_12_03_11_neuro_16600

Lecture_12_03_11_neuro_16600 - Lecture 12 Reward and...

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1 Mayank Mehta, NEURO 1660 1 Lecture 12 Reward and Neuro-economics W. Schultz, Behavioral theories and the neurophysiology of reward, Ann Rev. Psychol (2006). Sugrue, Newsome, Matching behavior and the representation of value in the parietal cortex, Science, (2004) Mayank Mehta, NEURO 1660 2 Reward • What is a reward? • Reward for doing something well? • Reward as being pleasurable? • Pavlov: Reward function is something that produces a change in behavior. • Not very different from learning. • Two types of reward learning or conditioning: • Classical or Pavlovian conditioning: conditioned stimulus (CS) is always followed by a reward, or unconditioned stimulue (US) independent of behavior. • Instrumental or operant conditioning: Animal has to generate a specific response to the stimulus to get a reward. • Individual stimuli in instrumental conditioning that predict the stimulus are considered Pavlovian conditioned. Shultz, Review Mayank Mehta, NEURO 1660 3 Three factors govern conditioning: Contiguity, Contingency and Prediction error Contiguity • CS: Conditioned stimulus (eg. Tone). • US: Unconditioned stimulus (eg. Food). • Contiguity requires that US should follow CS, or a response, within a few seconds. • US before CS does not lead to conditioning (no backward conditioning). Shultz, Review Mayank Mehta, NEURO 1660 4 Three factors govern conditioning: Contiguity, Contingency and Prediction error Contingency • Probability of reward delivery after the stimulus should be greater than the probability of reward in the absence of stimulus, or at any other time. • If the probability of reward is low in the presence of stimulus, conditioned inhibition results even if contiguity requirement is satisfied. • No learning occurs if reward probability shows no change after the CS. Shultz, Review
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2 Mayank Mehta, NEURO 1660 5 Three factors govern conditioning: Contiguity, Contingency and Prediction error Prediction error • Prediction error = difference between actually received reward
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This note was uploaded on 05/17/2008 for the course NEUR 1660 taught by Professor Mehta during the Spring '08 term at Brown.

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Lecture_12_03_11_neuro_16600 - Lecture 12 Reward and...

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