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Lecture_1_01_29_neuro_1660

Lecture_1_01_29_neuro_1660 - Experimental Methods in...

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1 Experimental Methods in Cognitive Neuroscience Jan 29, 2008 NEURO 1660, Cognitive Neuroscience Mayank R. Mehta What is cognitive neuroscience? How does the mind arise from the brain? Synaptic dynamics, Cellular properties Cellular properties Neuronal networks, Receptive Fields ... Behavior, Behavior, Disease Disease Spatio-temporal levels of organization of neual activity ? ? ? ? 1 10 4 10 14 10 -4 s 10 0 s 10 3 s Mehta, 2001 Experimental Methods Effects of brain lesions on behavior. MRI. Assessing brain damage in vivo . Functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI. Blood oxygenation level difference (BOLD). Trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Pharmacological and genetic tools. Magnetic Encephalography (MEG). Electro-Encephalography (EEG). Event related potential (ERP). Local Field Potential (LFP). Voltage Sensitive Dye (VSD) imaging. Action Potential (AP) or spikes. Parallel or multi-channel recording. Tetrode recording. Juxta-cellular recording. Membrane Potential (MP). Calcium imaging. Optical stimulation.
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2 Phrenology 1. The brain is the organ of the mind. The mind is composed of multiple distinct, innate faculties. 2. Because they are distinct, each faculty must have a separate seat or "organ" in the brain. 3. The size of an organ, other things being equal, is a measure of its power. 4. The shape of the brain is determined by the development of the various organs. 5. As the skull takes its shape from the brain, the surface of the skull can be read as an accurate index of psychological aptitudes and tendencies. Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828, Vienna) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phineas_Gage 1. Phineas Gage: Profound damage to frontal cortices in 1848. 2. No major interruption of mental abilities.(?) 3. Change in emotional character. (?). 4. Launched the study of assigning distinct functions to brain regions. 5. Brain structure to body function. 6. Made lobotomies popular. (?) Lesions Lobotomy Epileptic patient HM: Profound learning and memory deficits http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HM_(patient)
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3 Pros and Cons of lesion studies Allows you to infer which brain areas are involved in a specific cognitive process. Can not tell you how the process is carried out.
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