Philosophy Test 4 - Ethics- moral principle that govern a...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 6 pages.

Ethics-moral principle that govern a person’s behaviorI.Virtue ethics- the cultivation of a virtuous character and performing actions that reflectthis character are the fundamental moral goodsoAristotle (384-322 BCE)oEudaemonismScientific Background of Aristotle’s Ethics:The Doctrine of the Four Causes:oIn order to give a full account of any natural thing one must specify all four of thesecauses1.Material cause: the basic stuff of which the thing is madeWhat is it made of?2.Formal Cause: that which accounts for the thing being the kind of thing itisHow it is organized?3.Efficient Cause: that which brought the thing into existence or into aparticular stateWhat brought it about?4.Final Cause: that for the sake of which the thing exists it is the thingspurpose or function (most important)What does it do?\/Intrinsic causes- fundamental constituents of the thing (1&2)Extrinsic causes- (3&4)Teleology- Study of ends or purposes (most important)*The theory that all natural things are designed so as to have specific functions orpurposes*Definition questionEu- GoodDaemon- Divine beingCommon Answers:1.Happiness= is found in bodily/sensory pleasure (hedonism)Aristotle’s Critique:oIt is not complete2.Happiness= wealth (financial view)Aristotle’s Critique:oTwo ReasonsIt is not desired for it’s own sakeIt is incomplete3.Happiness= being honored (political view)Aristotle’s Critique:oThree ReasonsIt is not complete
Whether one is honored depends partly on those in power and as much as possibleone should work to have one’s happiness depend only on oneselfWe don’t want honors for their own sake; rather, we want them because we thinkthey are evidence of our virtue*Virtue (courage, patience)- arête (any excellent ability)4.Happiness= possessing virtueAristotle’s Critique:oWe are most fulfilled when we can exercise a virtueAristotle’s central conclusion\/Happiness= virtuous activity= found in living lives of distinctively humanexcellenceThe Function Argument:oClassification of the Living Activities:Vegetative Activities:*these are shared with plants and animals; thus, they are not our proper functionNutritionGrowthReproductionSensitive Activities:*these are shared with the lower animals; thus, they are not our proper functionSensationAppetiteEmotionSelf movementRational Activities: the use of reason to acquire knowledge and to make rationallyinformed decisions*these activities are unique to us and thus constitute our proper functionoHappiness= living lives of rational excellencePossible Objections to the Function Argument:oReason is not the only ability unique to humansRisibilityThe ability to love\/Perhaps one of these is our proper function

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 6 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Fall
Professor
Cellelo
Tags
Philosophy, Ethics, greatest happiness principle, higher pleasures

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture