Important announcement for the exam • The exam will be computer graded. You MUST bring a #2 pencil (preferably one with an eraser) or you will not be able to fill out an answer sheet. • I will have some pencils, without erasers, available on a first come, first-served basis.
Lecture 13 Lecture 13 How flexible are our eating habits? Instinct vs. learning in food choice Biology of taste preferences
* Restrict advertising primarily directed to young children of eight years and under. Policymakers need to take steps to better protect young children from exposure to advertising because of the inherent unfairness of advertising to audiences who lack the capability to evaluate biased sources of information found in television commercials. * Investigate how young children comprehend and are influenced by advertising in new interactive media environments such as the internet. * Examine the influence of advertising directed to children in the school and classroom. Such advertising may exert more powerful influence because of greater attention to the message or because of an implicit endorsement effect associated with advertising viewed in the school setting. Recommendations of American Psychological Association Task Force on Advertising and Children (2004)
Advertising to Youth Vulnerability at age of susceptibility to formation of taste preferences and addictions • Approximately eight out of ten of adult smokers started smoking when they were adolescents (Centers for Disease Control, 2004). Nicotine addiction is more likely to occur when first use occurs at a young age (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2004).
Can our food preferences be imprinted like our social behaviors?
“Flavor programming” in infants: Preference for dairy vs. protein hydrolysate-based formula (Nutramigen) is shaped over 7 weeks’ exposure
Can Taste Preferences be Learned in the Womb? J.A. Menella et al. 2001 • Pregnant women given water or carrot juice to drink (300 ml/day, 4 days/week) during last trimester and/or first 2 mo. of nursing • Carrot flavor is distinct and known (like garlic, anise) to be transmitted to human milk • Determine whether infant’s hedonic response to carrot-flavored cereal is influenced by pre-or postnatal exposure to the flavor
Mennella, J. A. et al. Pediatrics 2001;107:e88 Pre- and post-natal exposure shapes infants’ tastes
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