Lecture 8 Slides

Lecture 8 Slides - Review from Lecture 2 Dietary components...

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Review from Lecture 2 Review from Lecture 2 Dietary components essential for human health Dietary components essential for human health Calories – supply energy for metabolism – needed to construct body molecules (fats, carbohydrates, protein) Essential amino acids – polymerized to make proteins – Nitrogen can be used for nucleic acid synthesis Essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acid) Vitamins (enzymes and cofactors that cannot be synthesized by the body) – Water soluble – Fat soluble Minerals (Na + , K + , Cl - , Ca ++ , PO 4 - , Mg ++ ) Trace elements (Zn ++ , Cu ++ , Fe ++ , Mn ++ , etc.) Fiber (not metabolized and minimally absorbed in the gut) Phytochemicals (protective against disease: carotenes, flavenoids, etc. Not all are characterized/identified). Water
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Plant pigments that may act as antioxidants α carotene β -carotene – Antioxidant that removes free radicals – Some evidence it prevents some cancers – Can be converted to vitamin A and can cause lung cancer (at least in smokers, asbestos workers). – One study argues increase in risk of prostate cancer • Lutein and zeaxanthin – Protective against macular degeneration • Lycopene – Claimed to protect vs. cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes
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Some other antioxidants found in plants (but not processed foods) • Polyphenols: – Rich in berries and grapes – scavenge free radicals that may cause mutations – Quercetin • Flavenoid structure • anti-inflammatory • Found in citrus, capers, berries, etc • Catechins: inhibit cell cycle, induce apoptosis of abnormal cells • Di-indolemethane: stimulates viral defenses • Kyolic (from garlic): reduces cholesterol accumulation as fatty streaks in blood vessels
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Summary from Summary from Lec Lec 7 7 • Corn sweeteners and fats both contribute to the obesity
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Lecture 8 Slides - Review from Lecture 2 Dietary components...

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