Lecture 7 Slides

Lecture 7 Slides - Lecture 7 Laissez-faire, let the eater...

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Lecture 7 Laissez-faire, let the eater beware? What’s in our food that shouldn’t be there, and what’s missing from it Trans fats, omega fatty acids, and ordinances that regulate restaurant practices
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Obesity Rates differ with Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Education HFCS and obesity - continued from lecture 6
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Racial and economic differences in consumption of sugar and corn sweeteners do not parallel differences in incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes
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Other factors that may contribute to obesity or leaness include activity levels (caloric expenditure)…
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…and genetics Specific genes determine fat cell differentiation and distribution Production of hormones that affect metabolism- and their receptors- also genetically determined S. Gesta et al. PNAS 2006
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Economics and Food Choice • In 1990’s, rising obesity was blamed mostly on fat intake • Attention has switched to carbohydrates (especially HFCS) in recent years • It’s not “either-or”: both fat and carbohydrate intake promote obesity • Energy-dense diets contain more fats and sweets as well as fewer fruits and vegetables – Each 100g increase in fats and sweets associated with saving of $0.50/day – Increases in fruits and vegetable consumption associated with increased food cost • People with higher incomes and more education spend more on food, and buy more expensive food
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Trans Fats • The more saturated the fat, the fewer double bonds • Saturated fats have higher melting point - they are more likely to clog arteries • Thus saturated fats increase risk of coronary heart disease Saturated cis-unsaturated trans-unsaturated
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Oleic acid: 55% of olive oil Melts at 13.5 o C Elaidic acid: found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil Melts at 46.5 o C More likely to congeal (“stack”) in arteries Cis and Trans-Fatty acid isomers that have different properties and implications for health
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Trans fat raises levels of LDL and Reduces levels of HDL
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Contribution of increasing the percentage energy derived Contribution of increasing the percentage energy derived From various sources to the risk of coronary heart disease From various sources to the risk of coronary heart disease
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Partially hydrogenated fats • Occur naturally in ruminant milk and body fat (e.g., linoleic, made in rumen); comprise up to 5% of body fat • Vegetable oils are partially hydrogenated industrially for shortening, margarine, etc. – Increases shelf life (less rancidity) – Useful in baking – Preferred by people who wish to avoid animal fats for religious or ethical reasons • Cis fats lower levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL, “bad cholesterol”) • Most trans fats are not necessary in our diet and have no known benefits
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This note was uploaded on 05/18/2008 for the course BIO 105 taught by Professor Adler,irschick,podos during the Fall '08 term at UMass (Amherst).

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Lecture 7 Slides - Lecture 7 Laissez-faire, let the eater...

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