HIST213exam - Malthusian trap English Agricultural revolution Manuring techniques Tools and equipment New fertilizers guano boom Transfer of knowledge

HIST213exam - Malthusian trap English Agricultural...

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Malthusian trap English Agricultural revolution - Manuring techniques - Tools and equipment - New fertilizers: guano boom - Transfer of knowledge thru almanacs - Leads to general growth in rural population, surpluses feed urban populations, urban workers use wages to buy food - Generating capital for farmers, creating little rural pockets of capital - Poor farmers were pushed out overseas, so there is no malthusian check to this process! - Urbanization Historical significance: emphasis on efficiency and new machinery techniques inspired the industrial revolution Tinkerer’s revolution - 1754 a society club was formed to encourage invention - Robots are invented (shitting duck) - These tinkerers are not elites or men of science, they’re artisans, mechanics (Richard Arkwright), but they are literate and can read the almanacs Mechanizing the production of cloth: - Flying Shuttle 1733 by John Kay, doubles productivity - Spinning Jenny 1764 by James Hargreaves, spins thread - Spinning Frame 1771 by Richard Arkwright, big machine operated by water - Cotton Gin 1793 by Eli Whitney is a chinoiserie invented to imitate the quality of Asian textiles - The Jesuits were inspired by the traditional Chinese family to make the assembly line - One member cuts cloth, one designs it, one applies the designs Historical significance: the mechanization of the production of cloth boosted the textile industry Time discipline F.W Taylor - Taylorism: time motion studies - He made the system way more productive - For some this was salvation, but for others it was slavery - This was hard for Tinkerers because they had to abandon their skills and become machines, which led to acts of resistance - 1768: first act of resistance. Group of spinners break into hargreaves house and destroy all his machines - Slowing down is the most common form of hidden sabotage - Agriculturalists worked 7-8 hours a day, industrial average was 10 hours a day in terrible working conditions Historical significance: Completely changed the modern work day.
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Luddites - Modern def: a useless form of resistance - Ex. a prof who hates technology hehe daviken - King Ned Ludd - 1811: secret organization in the Sherwood Forest - Raided stocking machines - Sent letters out threatening factory owners - Over 1000 machines smashed - 1812: 12000 troops are sent in, vandals are sent to Australia Historical significance: Australia is colonized The colonial concentration camp Argentina conquest of the desert U.S “concentration camps” over the Native Americans Mass genocide in population- attempted to re-culturalize them Dutch indirect rule in Java - “indirect rule”= system of gvment used by Dutch in Java —> doesn’t try to administer people’s lives, yet enjoys eco. & pol. benefits —> “rested” sovereignty —> social maintained pol. authority but recognized sovereignty of foreign power - Dutch call their system of indirect rule on island of Java a “pol. theatre” in which public thinks power is that of local javanese but real power= dutch colonial officials, individually appointed to Javanese rule —> puppetry - 1865: Dutch ruled Jav. pop. of 20M people by only 75? representatives —> governed
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