ENGR_183_W08_12 - Computing and Society I

ENGR_183_W08_12 - Computing and Society I - Engineering and...

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Copyright Gershon Weltman, 2006 Engineering and Society: Computing and Society I Dr. Gershon Weltman Engineering 183, UCLA SEAS Lecture 12
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  2 An Early Automatic Calculator Pascaline was invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642. The device could add two decimal numbers. Pascal started production of his calculator and about 50 machines were produced, but there was no interest, so he had to stop .
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  3 And An Even Earlier One The Antikythera Mechanism, discovered off the Greek Island in 1900, is believed to date from the 1 st century BC, to be a computer of astronomical events, and to demonstrate scientifically precise gearing centuries before it was thought possible , and New Yorker, May 14, 2007
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  4 Improved Pascal Calculator The Stepped Reckoner, produced by Gottfried Leibnitz in 1673, was much more complex than Pascal's machine and could perform all four of the basic arithmetic functions. It also had a logical design fault in the carry mechanism which was not discovered until many years later .* *
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  5 Computing Timeline 1600 2000 1500 Leibniz Computer Pascal Calculator 1700 1800 1900 Babbage Analytical Engine Ada Lovelace Programs Boolean Logic Hollerith Information Machine IBM The ULTRA Machines Mark I ENIAC
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  6 Mechanical Computers Babbage Analytical Engine In 1822 Charles Babbage proposed a Difference Engine to perform differential equations. Ten years later he proposed a more general-purpose computer featuring program inputs and printed output, and called it an Analytical Engine. Hollerith Tabulating Machine The Herman Hollerith punched card tabulator compiled the 1890 census in 6 months -- 9.5 years faster than the 1880 census – and led to formation of International Business Machines (IBM).
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  7 Modern Era Computers Mechanical Devices 1919 IBM Tabulator Electronic Relays 1940 Bell Calculator Model 1 Vacuum Tubes 1943 Colossus (ULTRA project) 1955 IBM 704 Transistor Semiconductors 1959 IBM 7090 1965 DEC PDP-8 Mini-Computer Integrated Circuits 1968 DEC PDP-10 Mini-Computer 1977 Cray 1 Supercomputer 1982-4 IBM - Apple PCs 1993 Pentium Laptop 2003 PowerMac G5
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  8 Past Configurations: The SAGE Computer Vacuum Tubes
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  9 Future Configurations? 1 Marculescu, D., “Ready to Ware,” IEEE Spectrum, October 2003
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  10 Information Theory -- Founding Fathers Norbert Wiener MIT Claude Shannon Bell Labs, MIT “Use the word ‘cybernetics’ Norbert, because nobody knows what it means. This will always put you at an advantage in arguments.” They created a definition and mathematical science of “information” and tried to extend it -- as Cybernetics -- to other societal activities. Cybernetics, is much more than a word, Claude, it is the explanation for all of human communication, and a guide to how society should function.
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  11 Exponential Growth of Computing 1900 2000 10 -6 10 10 Calculations Per Second $1000 of Computing Buys From Kurzweil, R. “The Age of Spiritual Machines, Viking Penguin, 2000
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  12 Laws of Computing Growth Moore’s Law of Integrated Circuits
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  • Winter '08
  • Weltman
  • Artificial Intelligence, Copyright Gershon Weltman, Babbage Analytical Engine, Macinnis Engineering Associates, Online worldwide news

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