Lecture 4 - Sepecies & Speciation

Lecture 4 - Sepecies & Speciation - BILD 3 April 7,...

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BILD 3 April 7, 2008 1 1 HOW DO ORGANISMS DIVERSIFY? ADAPTIVE VARIATION SPECIATION ADAPTIVE RADIATION SPECIES: GROUPS OF POPULATIONS CONSISTING OF INDIVIDUALS CAPABLE OF FREELY INTERBREEDING WITH EACH OTHER BUT NOT WITH MEMBERS OF OTHER SPECIES. MAYR’s BIOLOGICAL SPECIES CONCEPT: GROUPS OF ACTUALLY OR POTENTIALLY INTERBREEDING NATURAL POPULATIONS THAT ARE REPRODUCTIVELY ISOLATED FROM OTHER SUCH GROUPS. 2 TYPOLOGICAL SPECIES CONCEPT LINNAEUS - SPECIES AS CREATED KINDS TYPE SPECIMENS AS A BASIS FOR TAXONOMY CONCEPT OF THE “WILD TYPE” MORPHOLOGICAL SPECIES CONCEPT: SPECIES LOOK DIFFERENT LINNEAN BINOMIAL SYSTEM OF NOMENCLATURE GENERIC NAME FOLLOWED BY SPECIES NAME Homo sapiens or H. sapiens GENUS, GENERA SPECIES SUBSPECIES IN THE OLDER TRINOMIAL SYSTEM WHICH RECOGNIZED SUBSPECIES WITH FORMAL NAMES Homo sapiens sapiens and H. s. neanderthalensis EACH TAXONOMIC CATEGORY IS CALLED A TAXON (TAXA) HIERARCHY: GENUS, FAMILY, ORDER, CLASS, PHYLUM (PHYLA) 3 4 BIOLOGICAL SPECIES CONCEPT BASED ON ATTRIBUTES IMPORTANT IN REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION OTHER CONCEPTS MENTIONED IN CAMPBELL: PHYLOGENETIC SPECIES CONCEPT BASED ON SHARED UNIQUE CHARACTERS AND HISTORY EVOLUTIONARY SPECIES CONCEPT BASED ON ALL OF THE ABOVE PLUS A DEEPER UNDERSTANDING OF HISTORY. DEFINED IN TERMS OF CLUSTERS OF GENETICALLY RELATED INDIVIDUALS. “GOOD” SPECIES SISTER AND DAUGHTER SPECIES SIBLING SPECIES: CLOSELY RELATED AND CANNOT BE DISTINGUISHED ON MORPHOLOGICAL GROUNDS CRYPTIC SPECIES: JUST HARD TO IDENTIFY 5 Limitations of the Biological Species Concept • The biological species concept cannot be applied to – Asexual organisms – Fossils – Organisms about which little is known regarding their reproduction 6 CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIES MORPHOLOGY DISTRIBUTION or RANGE GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION CLINAL VARIATION vs. CHAOTIC PATTERNS
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Lecture 4 - Sepecies & Speciation - BILD 3 April 7,...

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