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W7OutlineLec18 - binding proteins electric gradients 3 A...

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Luis David Gomez 59866865 Bio 192 D103 Cell Biology Week 7 Lecture 18 Outline 2/20/08 2 nd Messengers/Effectors 1 st messenger : Ligand that binds to GPCR 2 nd Messenger : Small molecules that can diffuse through cytosol after being released by proteins/enzymes that are affected by the Galpha-GTP subunit Examples Second messenger molecules are chemically diverse inorganic ion (Ca2+) (hydrophilic) cyclic nucleotides (cAMP, cGMP) (hydrophilic) lipids (diacylglycerol; DAG) (hydrophobic) gas (nitric oxide) Properties of Second Messenger 1. Act in specific compartment of the cell –either the cytosol (Ca 2+) or the lipid bilayer (DAG) 2. Have different RATES of diffusion Ex: Ca2+ diffuses slowly/controlled manner b/c Ca2+
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Unformatted text preview: binding proteins, electric gradients 3. A CHANGE in [2 nd Messenger] (rise OR fall) may cause transduction 4. [2 nd messenger] is determined by rate of synthesis/degradation balance (cyclases and phosphodiesterases respecitevely) 5. [2 nd messenger] changes very rapidly (ms) 6. 2 nd messengers bind to or alter behavior of effectors proteins 2 Major Target of ACTIVE trimeric G-protein coupled receptors 1. Adenylyl Cyclase cAMP PKA CREB transcription 2. Phospholipase C /PIP2/IP3 IP3-Gated Ca2+ Channel DAG/ Ca2+ PKC Know the enzymes for IP3/ DAG production! Enzymes work on substrate and add Phosphate to different position....
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