attachment_ac410c4641e2442d34c6a75774f3dc84

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Original Research Stability Ball Sitting versus Chair Sitting During Sub-maximal Arm Ergometry CHARLES R.C. MARKS , KRISTINA E. HYLLAND*, and JACOB TERRELL* Exercise Science Program, School of Health Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, USA Denotes professional author, *Denotes undergraduate student author ABSTRACT Int J Exerc Sci 5(1) : 16-25, 2012. It was predicted that sitting on a stability ball during arm ergometry would elevate cardiovascular parameters when compared to sitting on a chair and that this would be associated with greater recruitment of trunk and leg skeletal muscles. Methods: Open-circuit spirometry, videotaping, blood pressure, heart rate, and EMG were conducted during rest and four minute stages of 15 W, 30 W, and 45 W using a Monark arm ergometer. Twenty-six apparently healthy adults exercised twice, once sitting on a stability ball and the other sitting on a chair (order randomized), with 45 to 60 minutes of rest between. ANOVA for repeated measures and paired-t testing were used for analysis. Results: Oxygen consumption was significantly 10 to 16% higher during exercise while sitting on the stability ball. There were no significant differences between sitting modes for heart rate, SBP, and DBP. Also, resting and exercise rectus femoris and 45 W external oblique EMGs were significantly higher on the stability ball. Finally, the knee was significantly more extended with the feet farther apart and more forward on the stability ball. Conclusion: The stability ball significantly elevates oxygen consumption during sub-maximal arm cranking without significantly increasing heart rate or blood pressure and this is associated with increased thigh muscle activation and lower leg repositioning. KEY WORDS: Aerobic arm exercise, electromyography, oxygen consumption, Swiss ball INTRODUCTION The stability ball is used in fitness and rehabilitation settings to improve muscular endurance, strength, and flexibility. In addition, attempts have been made to use the stability ball to replace chairs for the home or work place in an effort to improve low back problems. Studies have examined the stability ball’s impact on electromyography (EMG) activity during muscular endurance exercises (4, 14, 20) and during sedentary sitting (10, 16, 17) but apparently none have been done with aerobic exercise. Also, the arm ergometer has been used in fitness and rehabilitation settings to improve upper body aerobic fitness (5, 6). Arm ergometry is typically done while sitting on a chair but could be done while sitting on a stability ball. The stability ball might increase core and leg muscle activity to stabilize the body during arm cranking and, in turn, elevate
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STABILITY BALL SITTING DURING ARM EXERCISE International Journal of Exercise Science http://www.intjexersci.com 17 cardiovascular and oxygen uptake parameters.
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