EE_10_F07_Lecture 8 - UCLA ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING...

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UCLA E LECTRICAL E NGINEERING D EPARTMENT : EE 10: C IRCUIT A NALYSIS 1 L ECTURE 8 L ECTURE 8 LECTURE NOTES: NOV. 5, 2007 REVIEW ........................................................................................................................................ 1 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS: INTRODUCTION .............................................................. 2 AMPLIFIER APPLICATION: MAGNETIC DISK STORAGE “READ CHANNEL” ....... 2 THE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER SYSTEM ......................................................................... 7 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CHARACTERISTICS ............................................................ 9 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT MODEL ............................................................... 10 AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT LIMITATIONS ................................................................................. 11 NEGATIVE FEEDBACK PRINCIPLES ................................................................................. 11 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT APPLICATION .................................................. 15 IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS: NON-INVERTING VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER ................................................................................................................................ 16 IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS: UNITY GAIN VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER PSPICE DEMONSTRATION ............................................................................ 19 IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS: NON-INVERTING VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER PSPICE DEMONSTRATION ............................................................................ 22 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER NON-IDEAL BEHAVIOR: BIAS SUPPLY LIMITS ....... 23 NON-IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS ....................................................................... 25 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER APPLICATIONS: FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE FILTER27 IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT .................................................................. 29 REVIEW 0. Principle of Superposition 1. Source Equivalents 2. Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits 1. Computation of a Thevenin Equivalent for Circuits with Independent Sources 2. Computation of a Thevenin Equivalent for Circuits with Dependent Sources 1
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UCLA E LECTRICAL E NGINEERING D EPARTMENT : EE 10: C IRCUIT A NALYSIS 1 L ECTURE 8 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS: INTRODUCTION In EE10, we have relied on ideal circuit elements, independent and dependent voltage sources and current sources. Prior to several critical inventions, such ideal elements were not possible to implement in reality. However, in this next topic, we will be learning about Operational Amplifiers that allow us to design circuits with precise and flexible response. These systems can implement the near- ideal elements we have been using. Operational amplifiers are core elements to electronics technology, appearing in: o Communications o Consumer Electronics o Computing Systems o Biomedical Electronics o Control Systems for Transportation o Instrumentation An excellent example of the applications of Operational Amplifiers appears in Magnetic Disk Storage. AMPLIFIER APPLICATION: MAGNETIC DISK STORAGE “READ CHANNEL” Operational amplifiers are critical in modern data storage applications. The history of digital data storage might be said to begin with the punched card, invented by Jaquard to control a loom. Hollerith machines followed in 1884 with punched cards having individual records consisting of a few tens of characters could be written and read by a relatively simple machine. Punched paper tape followed this in about 1940. Magnetic methods for storing binary data in the form of two polarities of magnetization of a structure appeared in the late 1940s. The first magnetic disks appeared in 1957. Magnetic disk storage is now fundamental to modern computing. This provides fast access to terabytes data libraries. Virtually all of the modern world’s data reaches 2
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UCLA E LECTRICAL E NGINEERING D EPARTMENT : EE 10: C IRCUIT A NALYSIS 1 L ECTURE 8 magnetic storage.
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