2016BIOL14 Nov 14 Slides (1)

2016BIOL14 Nov 14 Slides (1) - BIOL 14a Complex Traits and...

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BIOL 14a Nov 14, 2016 Complex Traits and Cancer
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What are complex traits? Traits controlled by multiple factors (genetic and/or environmental) Some examples: Near-sightedness Cancer Hair color Obesity Autism Height Blood cholesterol levels Asthma
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What are quantitative traits? Traits with a range of phenotypes Which of these? Near-sightedness Cancer Hair color Obesity Autism Height Blood cholesterol levels
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What are quantitative traits? Traits with a range of phenotypes Which of these? Near-sightedness Cancer Hair color Obesity Autism Height Blood cholesterol levels Asthma
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Complex traits often involve multiple genes…. Most of them making small individual contributions to phenotype.
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Locations of the many genes Known to affect blood cholesterol levels
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women men Class data From a few years ago 64.6” ± 2.9 164 cm ± 7.4 69.3” ± 3.1 176 cm ± 8 8.41 9.61 Example: Human Height
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An overly-simple model for height 3 equally-contributing genes, effect influenced by sex In males, each +H allele contributes 3” (range 5’ 0” to 6’ 6”) In females, each +H allele contributes 2” (range 5’ 0” to 6’) 6h (5h 1H) (4h 2H) (3h 3H) (2h 4H) (1h 5H) 6H Height (XY) 5’0” 5’3” 5’6” 5’9” 6’0” 6’3” 6’6” Height (XX) 5’0” 5’2” 5’4” 5’6” 5’8” 5’10” 6’0” Frequency 1 6 15 20 15 6 1 Assuming all alleles at equal frequency in population, which is not the case.
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For many complex traits, genes and environment together determine phenotype:
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