Most energy that moves through ecosystems originates as solar
energy that powers photosynthesis.
Where sunlight is not available (e.g., deep ocean thermal vents),
producers rely on chemosynthesis as their source of energy.
Producers harness energy and form the basis of food webs.
Producers use energy for respiration, growth, and reproduction
The energy used for growth and reproduction is the energy available
the rate at which solar or chemical energy is
captured and converted into chemical bonds by photosynthesis or