35 - transgenes in mammals

35 - transgenes in mammals - BIOLOGY 325H Transgenes in...

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BIOLOGY 325H Transgenes in mammals April 21, 2008 Advances in genetics have not been limited to invertebrates such as Drosophila , and some of the most powerful tools for studying genetics have been developed for the mouse. Like humans the mouse is a placental mammal, and mouse genetics has had an enormous impact on both biology and medicine. In today's lecture we will first overview the way in which mammalian embryos develop, and then discuss some of the techniques that have been developed over the last few decades to perform sophisticated genetic manipulations in mice. In particular, take note that mouse is the only experimental organism in which it is currently routine to identify a gene through molecular studies, and then produce a targeted deletion of that gene in order to understand its function. Learning Goals 1. In mammals, a blastocyst embryo is composed of what two cell populations? How are they arranged relative to the blastocoel? What is the developmental fate of each of these two cell populations? 2. What is an embryonic stem (ES) cell? You should appreciate that ES cells can be maintained indefinitely in cell culture, where they divide and expand the size of the population. 3. What is a genetic chimera? How did Beatrice Mintz first generate chimeric mice in the 1960's? How are ES cells used to generate mice that are chimeric for a transgene? 4. What is homologous recombination, and how is it used to target transgene insertion in ES cells? Why is the neo r gene commonly included as part of the transgene? 5. How do geneticists use 'knockout mice' to study gene function? You should be able to explain the sequence of steps used to produce mice that are both heterozygous and homozyogous for a knockout allele. What is the meaning of the term 'germline integration', and why is it an essential part of this process? 6. Some genes - like
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35 - transgenes in mammals - BIOLOGY 325H Transgenes in...

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