Chapter 9 Reading & Study Guide

Chapter 9 Reading & Study Guide - 1 Reading/Study Guide...

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Reading/Study Guide Chapter 9 Social and Emotional Development Chapter Outline I. Forging Early Social Relationships A. Attachment: Forming Social Bonds B. The most important form of social development that occurs during infancy is ATTACHMENT — positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular, special individual a. Most important aspect an infant develops b. Sensitive period (first 3 years)—time which attachment likely to occur (or may never occur) 1. What role does Lorenz play in the development of the theory of attachment? Earliest animal research suggests attachment based on biologically determined factors Imprinting—innate; young animal follow and become attached to moving object So—attachment biologically determined 2. What role does Freud play in the development of the theory of attachment? a. Freud- grows from mother’s ability to satisfy oral needs 3. What role does Harlow play in the development of the theory of attachment? a. Harlow and Zimmerman—food alone insufficient; contact comfort (pleasurable tactile sensation) b. Contact comfort causes attachment 4. John Bowlby (1907- 1990) carried out the earliest work on humans. What were some of his ideas involving infants? a. Attachment biologically based on safety/ security needs b. Strong attachment—provides home base—gain independence c. Realize that safety is best provided by a particular individual 1
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5. Based on Bowlby’s work, Mary Ainsworth developed the AINSWORTH STRANGE SITUATION — sequence of 8 episodes; strength of attachment between child and (typically) mother (1) Reactions vary among infants a. Two-thirds of one-year-olds have the SECURE ATTACHMENT PATTERN — mother= home base (~60%) b. Twenty percent have the AVOIDANT ATTACHMENT PATTERN don’t seek proximity; avoid her when she returns (20%) c. About 10 to 15 percent have the AMBIVALENT ATTACHMENT PATTERN — combination of positive and negative reactions (10- 15%) d. A more recent expansion of Ainsworth’s work suggests a fourth category: DISORGANIZED-DISORIENTED ATTACHMENT PATTERN — Inconsistent, contradictory confused (5-10%); Reactive Attachment Disorder—rare and result of abuse/ neglect e. Does attachment have significant consequences for relationships at later stages in life? (Cultural differences) f. A number of studies show how each attachment style relates to the willingness to self- disclose, the willingness to rely on partners and to engage in physical intimacy g. Secure attachment style is generally related to more self disclosure, more reliance on partners, and more physical intimacy than other attachment styles h. However many personality variables and situational circumstances (1) Yes a) Securely attached 1 year old males show fewer psychological difficulties at older ages a) Securely attached infants are more socially and emotionally component later and more positively viewed a) Adult romantic relationships are associated with attachment style developed during infant (2) But (read in text) i. REACTIVE ATTACHMENT DISORDER (1) A psychological problem characterized by extreme problems in forming attachments to others 2
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  • Spring '08
  • Harris
  • Psychology, secure attachment

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