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swapna credit 2003 - BREEDING FOR SPROUTING TOLERANCE IN...

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BREEDING FOR BREEDING FOR SPROUTING TOLERANCE SPROUTING TOLERANCE IN MAIZE IN MAIZE
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Introduction Cause of sprouting Factors effecting mechanism involved sprouting Management Case studies Conclusions
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Introduction WORLD INDIA 8.17 m.ha 19.33 m.t 2.410 t ha-1
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SEED (1%) INDUSTRY(13%) FOOD( 25 % ) FEED( 12 %) POULTRY( 4 9 %)
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Sprouting Sprouting occurs while immature or mature kernels are still attached to the cob. The phenomenon of germination of physiologically mature cereal grains in the ear or panicle, usually under wet conditions shortly before harvest, is termed as pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). PHS occurs in many cereal crops
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Cause of sprouting Extensive selection pressure during domestication and breeding of crop species have typically removed most dormancy mechanisms present in the seeds of their wild ancestors.
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Visible indication s Irreversible kernel swelling. Germ discoloration Seed coat splitting Root and shoot emergence
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Effect of sprouting Loss of seed viability. Reduction of yield by reducing test weight. Fungal growth. Flour obtained loses its thickening power due to starch breakdown. Economic losses.
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Factors affecting
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Genes The phenomena of premature germination of corn grains or kernel while still on its cob before harvest is called Vivipary . The mutant responsible for vivipary is called viviparous mutants . On the rare occasion when viviparous germination occurs throughout a field to a large enough degree, overall grain quality can deteriorate enough to cause problems with drying and storage of grain. Another consequence is the potential increase in the percentage of "broken corn and foreign material" in affected grain delivered to the elevator that may result in significant grain price discounts to the grower.
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It can be associated with the imbalance of abscisic acid and gibberellic acid. Differences between viviparous and normal embryos first appeared at 25 to 30 days after pollination When a certain hybrid is viviparous it is observed as early as 85 days after planting or 2-3 weeks before harvest, depending on the maturity of the hybrid. No control measures have been developed for this condition. It is thereby recommended to choose vivipary-resistant varieties. By detailed analysis of vivipary helpful for knowing the mechanisms, pathways, and genes which responsible for dormancy by that we can able to breed the sprouting tolerent hybrids.
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Classes of viviparous mutants Viviparous mutants Alters the carotenoid and chlorophyll synthesis. ino seedlings. Class I Class II Does not alters the carotenoid and chlorophyll synthesis . (Robertson, D.S)
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GENETICS OF MUTANTS Mutants of Class-I : Viviparous- 1: Germinates in the late dough stage producing a green seedling that grows into a normal appearing mature plant.
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