Aquinas_Of War (CLASSICS)_Jan 30 - Chapter 2 Just War and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Just War and Idealism 6. Of War THOMAS AOUINAS QUESTION XL ARTICLE I. Whether It Is Always Sinful to Wage War? We proceed thus to the First Article: It seems that it is always sinful to wage war. Objection 1 . Because punishment is not in- flicted except for sin. Now those who wage war are threatened by Our Lord with punishment, according to Matt. 26. 52: All that take the sword shall perish with the sword. Therefore all wars are unlawful. Obj. 2. Further, Whatever is contrary to a Divine recept is a sin. But war is contrary to a DivinhJ precept, for it is wrltten (Matt. 5.39): ButI say to you not to resist evil; and (Rom. 12.19) 2 Not revengingyourselves, my dearly beloved, but give place unto wrath. Therefore war is always smful. Obj. 3. Further, Nothing, except sin, is con— trary to an act of virtue. But war is contrary to peace. Therefore war is always a sin. Obj. 4. Further, The exercise of a lawful thing is itself lawful, as is evident in exercises of the sciences. But warlike exerc1ses wh1ch From Summa Theologica, Part II of Second. hart. Translated by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province. First published in the United States in 1917 by Benziger Brothers. Footnotes deleted. .‘V {MMWEXW/WMWWWM-wx take place in tournaments are forbidden bythe Church, since those who are slain in these trials are deprived of ecclesiastical burial. Therefore it seems that war is a sin absolutely. < WKWWMMWWQWWXQWWW Wat On the contrary, Augustine says in asermon on the son of the centurion: “If the Christian ~: Religion forbade war altogether, those who _ sought salutary advice in the Gospel would : rather have been counselled to cast aside their arms, and to give up soldiering altogether. On the contrary, they were told: ‘Do Violence to no man; . . . and be content with your pay’ (Luke 3.14). If he commanded them to be content with their pay, he did not forbid soldienng. I answer that, In order for a war to be just, three things are necessary. First, the authont; of the sovereign by whose command the warts to be waged. For it is not the busmess of a SS;- vate person to declare war, because he can his for redress of his rights from the trlbunal of f superior. Moreover it is not the busmess 0 3 private person to summon together thin {36; ple, which has to be done in wartime. (m the care of the common weal 15 commute those who are in authority, it is their busmffi to watch over the common weal of theft}: kingdom or province subject to them. A11 1 as it is lawful for them to have recourse to fig material sword in defending that comfia weal against internal disturbances, whf?n . rs, according to the words of the 134): He beareth not the sword in . ‘ ’ inister; an avert er to execute I”mufmoh;ll:z’vcnmtilzsaifldoth evil; so tog, it is their “millet: to have recourse to the sword of war bugflfending the common weal against exter- 11;} :nemies. Hence it is said to those who are n authority (PS. 81. 4): Rescue the poor: and de— g,” the needy out of the hand of the sinner; and for .th reason Augustine says (Contra Faust. xxn, 325): “The natural order conducrve to peace among mortals demands that the power to de— rlare and counsel war should be In the hands of those who hold the supreme authority. Secondly, a just cause is required, namely that those who are attacked should be attacked be- cause they deserve it on account of some fault. Therefore Augustine says (Q. X, super 105.): “A just war is usually described as one that avenges “Tongs, when a nation or state has to be pun- ished, for refusing to make amends for the wrongs inflicted by its subjects, or to restore what it has seized unjustly.” Thirdly, it is necessary that the belligerents should have a right intention, so that they in- tend the advancement of good, or the avoid- ance of evil. Hence Augustine says (De Verb. Dom.) : “True religion does not look upon as sin- ful those wars that are waged not for motives of aggrandisement, or cruelty, but with the object of securing peace, of punishing evildoers, and of uplifting the good.” For it may happen that the war is declared by the legitimate authority, and for a just cause, and yet be rendered un— iawfill through a wicked intention. Hence Augustine says (Contra Faust. xxii): “The pas- sion for inflicting harm, the cruel thirst for vengeance, an unpacific and relentless spirit, the fever of revolt, the lust of power, and such things, all these are rightly condemned in war. ” sh CVlldOC Apostle (Rom. puni Reply Obj. 1. As Augustine says (Contra Faust. xxii): “To take the sword is to arm one- self in order to take the life of anyone, with- out the command or permission of superior or lawful authority.” On the other hand, to have recourse to the sword (as a private per- 5011) by the authority of the sovereign or judge, Or (as a public person) through zeal for jus— Of War 33 tice, and by the authority, so to speak, of God, is not to take the sword, but to use it as com- missioned by another, and so it does not de- serve punishment. And yet even those who make sinful use of the sword are not always slain with the sword, but they always perish with their own sword, because, unless they re— pent, they are punished eternally for their sin- ful use of the sword. Reply Obj. 2. Precepts of this kind, as Augustine observes (De Serm. Dam. in Monte, i) , should always be borne in readiness of mind, so that we be ready to obey them, and, if nec- essary, to refrain from resistance or self-de- fence. Nevertheless it is necessary sometimes for a man to actyotherwise for the common good, or for the good of those with whom he is fighting. Hence Augustine says (Ep. ad Marcellin.): “Those whom we have to punish with a kindly severity, it is necessary to handle in many ways against their will. For when we are stripping a man of the lawlessness of sin, it is good for him to be vanquished, since noth- ing is more hopeless than the happiness of sin- ners, whence arises a guilty impunity, and an evil will, like an internal enemy.” Reply Obj. 3. Those who wage war justly aim at peace, and so they are not opposed to peace, except to the evil peace, which Our Lord came not to send upon earth (Matt. 10.34). Hence Augustine says (Ep. ad Bonif clxxxix): “We do not seek peace in order to be at war, but we go to war that we may have peace. Be peaceful, therefore, in warring, so that you may vanquish those whom you war against, and bring them to the prosperity of peace.” Reply Obj. 4. Manly exercises in warlike feats of arms are not all forbidden, but those which are inordinate and perilous, and end in slaying or plundering. . . . ARTICLE 2. Whether It Is Lawful for Clerics and Bishops to Fight? We proceed thus to the Second Article: It seems lawful for clerics and bishops to fight. 34 just War and Idealism Objection 1 . For, as stated above (A. I) , wars are lawful and just in so far as they protect the poor and the entire common weal from suf— fering at the hands of the foe. . . . Obj. 3. Further, It seems to be the same whether a man does a thing himself, or con- sents to its being done by another, according to Rom. I. 32: They who do such things, are wor- thy of death, and not only they that do them, but they also that consent to them that do them. Now those, above all, seem to consent to a thing, who in— duce others to do it. . . . Obj. 4. Further, Whatever is right and mer— itorious in itself is lawful for prelates and cler— ics. Now it is sometimes right and meritorious to make war, for it is written (xxiii, qu. 8, can. Omni timore) that “if a man die for the true faith, or to save his country, or in defence of Christians, God will give him a heavenly re- ward." Therefore it is lawful for bishops and clerics to fight. 0n the contrary, It was said to Peter as rep— resenting bishops and clerics (Matt. 26. 53): Put up again thy sword into the scabbard (Vulg.,— its place). Therefore it is not lawful for them to fight. I answer that, Several things are requisite for the good of a human society, and a number of things are done better and quicker by a num- ber of persons than by one, as the Philosopher observes, while certain occupations are so in- consistent with one another, that they cannot be fittingly exercised at the same time; hence those who are assigned to important duties are forbidden to occupy themselves with things of . small importance. Thus according to human laws, soldiers who are assigned to warlike pur— suits are forbidden to engage in commerce. Now warlike pursuits are altogether in— compatible with the duties of a bishop and a cleric for two reasons. . . . warlike pursuits are full of unrest, so that they hinder the mind very much from the contemplation of Divine things, the praise of God, and prayers for the people, which belong to the duties of a cleric. Therefore just as commercial enterprises are forbidden to clerics, because they entangle the mind too much, so too are warlike pur- suits, according to II Tim. 2. 4: No man beinga soldier to God, entangleth himself with secular busi. ness. . . .Therefore it is unbecoming for them L to slay or shed blood, and it is more fitting that they should be ready to shed their own bleed ' for Christ, so as to imitate in deed what they portray in their ministry. For this reason ithas . been decreed that those who shed blood, even without sin, become irregular. Now no man who has a certain duty to perform can lawful}, do that which renders him unfit for that duty: Therefore it is altogether unlawful for clerics to fight, because war is directed to the shed ding of blood. Wfléfif e E Reply Obj. 1. Prelates ought to withstand § not only the wolf who brings spiritual death § upon the flock, but also the pillager and the E oppressor who work bodily harm; not, how E ever, by having recourse themselves to mate s, rial arms, but by means of spiritual weapons, § according to the saying of the Apostle (II Cor. 1 10. 4): The weapons of our warfare are not carnal, g but mighty through God. . . . 9 x \ Reply Obj. 3. As stated above (Q. XXIII,:t 4, Reply 2) every power, art or virtue that , pertains to the end, has to dispose that which is directed to the end. Now, among the faith- ‘ ful, carnal wars should be considered as has ' ing for their end the Divine spiritual good to which clerics are deputed. Therefore it is the duty of clerics to dispose and counsel other ~ men to engage in just wars. For they are for. - bidden to take up arms, not as though itwert‘ a sin, but because such an occupation is on: becoming their persons. Reply Obj. 4. Although it is meritoriouSIB wage a just war, nevertheless it is rendered “It; lawful for clerics, by reason of their being signed to works more meritorious still. Th _ the marriage act may be meritorious; afldifi' it becomes reprehensible in those who ha vowed virginity, because they are bound 10 yet greater good. 7. The World Must Be Made Safe for Democracy The Fourteen Points WOODROW WILSON THE WORLD MUST BE MADE SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY I have called the Congress into extraordinary session because there are serious, very seriouS, choices of policy to be made, and made im- mediately, which it was neither right nor con- stitutionally permissible that I should assume the responsibility of making. 0n the third of February last I officially laid before you the extraordinary announcement of the Imperial German Government that on and after the first day of February it was its pur— pose to put aside all restraints of law or of hu- manity and use its submarines to sink every vessel that sought to approach either the ports of Great Britain and Ireland or the western coasts of Europe or any of the ports controlled by the enemies of Germany within the hiediterranean. That had seemed to be the ob- yect of the German submarine warfare earlier in the. war, but since April of last year the sgigglthggzzggggt had somewhat re- in Conformi 'th _ ers of its undersea craft that passen tywll) its promise then given to us that due w 35:11 oats should not be sunk and Vessels Which its g would be glven to all other submarlnes might seek to de- From Addre War, April 2’ 19 $3 to Congress Asking for Declaration of 17; Address to Congress, january 8, 1918. stroy, when no resistance was offered or escape attempted, and care taken that their crews were given at least a fair chance to save their l1ves in their open boats. The precautions taken were meager and haphazard enough, as was proved in distressing instance after in— stance in the progress of the cruel and un- manly business, but a certain degree of restraint was observed. The new policy has swept every restriction aside. Vessels of every kind, whatever their flag, their character, their cargo, their destination, their errand, have been ruthlessly sent to the bottom without warning and without thought of help or mercy for those on board, the vessels of friendly neu- trals along with those of belligerents. Even hos- pital ships and ships carrying relief to the sorely bereaved and stricken people of Belgium, though the latter were provided with safe conduct through the proscribed areas by the German Government itself and were dis- tinguished by unmistakable marks of identity, have been sunk with the same reckless lack of compassion or of principle. I was for a little while unable to believe that such things would in fact be done by any government that had hitherto subscribed to the humane practices of civilized nations. ...
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