Unit 1 Patho Study Guide - Unit 1 Patho Study Guide 1 What...

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Unit 1 Patho Study Guide 1. What is Metabolic Absorption? (p.2) Metabolic Absorption All cells take in and use nutrients and other substances from their surroundings. Cells of the intestines and the kidney are specialized to carry out absorption. Cells of the kidney tubules reabsorb fluids and synthesize proteins. Intestinal epithelial cells reabsorb fluids and synthesize protein enzymes. 2. What uses oxygen to remove hydrogen atoms in an oxidative reaction? (p.8) Peroxisomes (microbodies) are membrane-bound organelles with oxidative enzymes- catalase & urate oxidase . They detoxify compounds and fatty acids. They use oxygen to remove hydrogen atoms in an oxidative reaction that produces hydrogen peroxide. 3. During cell injury, what is released that is capable of cellular autodigestion? (p. 7) As cells complete their lifespan and die, lysosomes digest the resultant cellular debris. Lysosomes involved in this, which is autodigestion, are called autolysosomes or autophagosomes. 4. Where is the genetic info contained in the cell? (p. 7) DNA is the genetic info contained in the cell and is stored in the nucleus 5. Cell membranes contain which chemical components? (p.12) Bilayer of lipid molecules and proteins made from a chain of amino acids called polypeptides 6. What allows potassium to diffuse in and out of cells? (p.32) Active transport NA+-K pump, voltage-gated NA channels begin to close, voltage-gated K channels open. Membrane permeability to NA decreases and K permeability increases with an outward movement of K ions. The NA gates close, and with the outward move of K, the membrane potential becomes more negative. The NA+-K pump then returns membranes to the resting potential by pumping K back into the cell and NA out of the cell. The plasma membrane contains a “carrier” mechanism that mediates the transport of K 7. How is the cell protected from injury? (p.11) Cells are protected from injury by the plasma membrane , having a bilayer of lipid molecules. 8. In cirrhosis, what does cholesterol have to do with erythrocytes? (p. 68,85)
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Cholesterol can accumulate and is in many pathologic states such as atherosclerosis, in which atherosclerotic plaques, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages within the intimal later of the aorta and large arteries are filled with lipid-rich vacuoles of cholesterol. The accumulation affects the transport of cholesterol. 9. What is platelet-derived growth factor? (p.39) It stimulates the proliferation of connective tissue cells and neuroglial cells 10.What is cell communicating? How does it occur? (p.20) Cells communicate in 3 ways: -Plasma membrane bound signaling molecules that affect the cell itself and other cells in direct physical contact -they activate receptor proteins inside the target cell -they form protein channels (gap junction) that directly coordinate the activities of adjacent cells 11.What is chemical signaling? (p.20) Secreted chemical signals involve communication at a distance - Paracrine signaling- cells secrete local chemical mediators that are quickly absorbed, destroyed and immobilized -
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