ch 2 - Chapter 2 History of Public Health and Public and...

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Chapter 2 History of Public Health and Public and Community Health Nursing
Change and ContinuityThreats to health change over time, but foundational principles and goals of PHN remain the sameMany communicable diseases are controlled in the United States: diphtheria, cholera, typhoid feverOthers continue to affect many lives across the globe: HIV, poliomyelitis, tuberculosisHealth concerns are international.Emerging/re-emerging communicable diseasessuch as H1N1 influenza and the Ebola virus underscore the global nature of health concerns.
PH During America’s Colonial Period and the New RepublicHousehold members (usually women) tended to the sick.Urbanization in the early 1800s caused this system to became insufficient.England’s Elizabethan Poor Law of 16011751 Pennsylvania Hospital foundedEarly colonial PH efforts- collecting statistics, sanitation, trying to control communicable disease
After the American RevolutionU.S. Public Health Service (PHS)Established in 1798 as the Marine Hospital ServiceEarly experiments in providing nursing care at homeLadies Benevolent Society of Charleston (1813)Philadelphia lay nursesRoman Catholic Sisters of Charity (1854)Shattuck Report (1850) by the Massachusetts Sanitary Commission
Nightingale and the Origins of Trained NursingNeed for nursesOrigins of organized nursingNightengale studied under Pastor Theodor FliednerCrimean WarNightengale made improvements using a population-based approachPrinciples of nursingHealth of the unity is the health of the communitySick nursing” versus “health nursingProper nutrition, rest, sanitation, and hygiene
America Needs Trained NursesNeed for PH nursingIncrease of women in workforceEconomic advantage of home-visiting nurses (could visit more than one patient per day) Origins of organized nursing1870s: first Nightingale model nursing schools1877: Women’s Board of the New York City Mission hired Frances Root to visit sick poor persons 1885-1886: visiting nurse associations established in Buffalo, New York, Philadelphia and Boston
District Nursing and Settlement HousesDeplorable immigrant tenement housingand sweatshops

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