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Rajpreet Bal214923783Sept 26th,2016Faculty of Liberal Arts & Professional,York UniversityLaw and Morality In Literature and Culture AP/HUMA 1825 – 2016-2017 David Cohen’s Study of Law in Ancient Greece 1.There are many features of the institution of law that we take for granted today, whichwere absent in the ancient Athens. Today we have developed a legal system, where we depend onour federal system. In the ancient Athens the people used to depend on the people of the city, sothere was no government. "Athenian litigation by its very nature seldom depended uponarguments about statutory interpretation or legal doctrine"(Cohen,1995, p.61). There were veryfew laws that were written down and most laws were customs and were controversial. Lawstoday help us protect our rights and freedoms. If someone has committed a crime in Canada,they have committed the crime against the state. In ancient Athens, when a crime was committed,they had committed the crime against the person, not the state. "Athenian citizens, as women,slaves, foreigners, and certain social outcasts were excluded"( Cohen,1995, p.64). During Athenstime, men had power over everything, but in today's society there are women rights and equalityrights, so no one is excluded. Nowadays there is a procedure in order for a trial to occur, such ashaving a judge, jury, and a lawyer. Back in the days it was the "values of the mass courts ofuntrained citizen-judges"( Cohen,1995, p.87). It was up to the citizens to decide who won. It wasbased upon reputation and popularity. When one decided who would win, they would think tothemselves "who was the best for society, or who is going to build my power, and/or who isbetter." There was no formal training due to the fact they had no laws written down. All of thesetrials were civil trials. During these rapid trials, there were no deliberations, people in the citydid not have time to deliberate on what they thought they had to decide in a little bit of time. TheAthens was a society "where prosecution is only by private initiative, where everyone knows thatindividuals seek revenge and pursue feuding relations through the courts, where there is nocross-examination of witnesses or expert evaluation of evidence, where the trial is of extremelylimited duration and confined to two opposing speeches..."( Cohen,1995, p.105). Character wassubjective, no one would know who was telling the truth or who was lying. There was no hearsayevidence which could have determined that the statement that was made by the witness is true ornot. These days we have something called cross-examination, which is very important during atrial. In Athens time there was no cross-examination, so the people of the city did not find outwhat the alter motive was and what were the facts. It also included not having any objections in