Ch1 History - Historical Overview and Historical Overview...

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Historical Overview and Historical Overview and Approaches Approaches January 7 January 7 th , 2016 , 2016
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…refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used. Neisser, 1967 What is Cognitive Psychology? What is Cognitive Psychology?
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Attention Attention Perception Perception Pattern Recognition Pattern Recognition Memory Memory
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Outline Outline 1. Antecedent Philosophies & Traditions 2. The Cognitive Revolution 3. Paradigms of Cognitive Psychology
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Empiricism Empiricism : Locke, Hume, Stuart Mill Emphasis on Experience / learning Key is the association between experiences Antecedent Philosophies Antecedent Philosophies Hume Kant Nativism Nativism : Plato, Descartes, Kant Emphasis on that which is innate
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Structuralism Structuralism : Wundt & Baldwin Focus on elemental components of mind Method : Introspection Report on the basic elements of consciousness Not Internal perception but experimental self observation Must be done in laboratory under controlled conditions Antecedents of Cognitive Psychology Antecedents of Cognitive Psychology
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Functionalism Functionalism : William James Regarded the mission of psychology to be the explanation of our experience. Why does the mind work as it does? Function more important than content Method : Introspection in natural settings Must study the whole organism in real-life situations Must get out of the laboratory Antecedents of Cognitive Psychology Antecedents of Cognitive Psychology James
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Psychology as the Behaviorist sees it is a purely objective, experimental branch of natural science . Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness . . . . What we need to do is start work upon psychology making behavior, not consciousness, the objective point of our attack . (Watson, 1913, pp.158, 176)
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Behaviourism Behaviourism : Watson, Skinner Took root in the 1930’s and dominated academic psychology into the 1960’s a reaction to lack of progress with introspection became unfashionable to talk about mental representations and consciousness learning was emphasized ( relation between inputs [stimuli] and outputs [responses] ) Antecedents of Cognitive Psychology Antecedents of Cognitive Psychology Skinner
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