Ch10 ProblemSolving - Thinking& Problem Solving...

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Thinking & Problem Solving Thinking & Problem Solving March 15 March 15 th th and 17 and 17 th th , 2016 , 2016
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I) What is Thinking II) Problem Solving Techniques Generate and Test Means-Ends Working Backward Back Tracking Reasoning by Analogy III) Blocks in Problem Solving Mental Set Lack of Problem Specific Knowledge or Expertise Outline Outline
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(1) Focused thinking (e.g. goal based, problem solving) (2) Unfocused thinking (e.g. daydreaming, unintentional, creative thinking?) Going beyond the information given (Bruner, 1957). Complex and high-level skill that fills up gaps in the evidence (Bartlett, 1958). Process of searching through a problem space (Newell & Simon, 1972). What we do when we are in doubt about how to act, what to believe, or what to desire (Baron, 1994). Thinking Thinking
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Thinking Thinking “Dick’s method is this. You write down the problem. You think very hard. [closes eyes and presses knuckles to his forehead…] Then you write down the answer” Gleick, 1992, p. 315 Richard Feynman
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Wandering Minds: The Default Network and Stimulus Independent Thought Malia Mason http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mf4kbi76yGk
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WELL defined have beginning and end rule or guidelines ILL defined ? (they’re ill defined) Thinking Thinking Types of Problems Types of Problems
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Focused problem solving in well defined problems. What do Psychologists Study? What do Psychologists Study?
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Generate and Test • Means-Ends Working Backward Back Tracking Reasoning by Analogy Techniques Techniques
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As the name suggests: Generate a number of solutions, then Test the solutions Useful if there is a limited number of possibilities Problematic if: Too many possibilities No guidance over generation Can’t keep track of possibilities tested Generate and Test Generate and Test
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Problem space ( Newell & Simon, 1972) Initial state : conditions at beginning of problem Goals state : condition at the end of problem Intermediate states : the various conditions that exist along pathways between the initial and the goal state Operators : permissible moves that can be made towards the problem’s solution Means-Ends Analysis Means-Ends Analysis
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Reduce the difference between initial state and goal state.
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