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Bio Psychology Midterm #2Chapter 5 Goals of Research in Behavioural Neuroscience:-Assess how different brain areas control behaviour-Determine which cells and chemicals are involved in behaviour-Measure activity of neurons in conjunction with behaviourMaking Neurons VisibleHistologyto prepare nervous tissue for examination under the microscope1.Perfusion: flush blood from animals body using saline- put saline into heart to pump blood out of brain2.Fixation: chemicals (formalin) stabilize tissue to prevent disintegration after death, makes the brain hard (most common)Embedding and Slicing-Embed brain in wax or other supporting medium (freeze)-Slice very thin and mount each slice on a microscope slide-BUT sectioned brain tissue is nearly transparent- visualizing requires stainStaining to See Structure-Different dyes adhere to different cells or parts of nervous system-Nissl StainingIn the late 1800’s Franz Nissl discovered that methylene blue would stain cell bodiesNissl Staining is one of the most common structural stains Dyes have changed thoughCresyl violet and thionin stainStaining wherever there is grey matter-Myelin StainsColours the sheath that surrounds the neurons so fibre bundles are observedAttaches where there is myelinDoesn’t tell the direction of the pathwayE.g. Weigert-Golgi StainingExtremely important staining methodDeveloped in the late 1800’s by Camillo GolgiChemical reaction results in some neurons stainedAllows morphology of whole neuron to be seenSelectively stains only 2-5% of neurons Allows researchers to see initial shape of neuron
Neuroanatomical Tracing Techniques-Anterograde (forward) Tracing where axons project away from an area (efferent connections) PHA-L -Retrograde (backward) Tracing where axons are projecting into an area (afferent pathways)Flourogold Methods of Visualizing the Living Human BrainContrast X-Rays-Beam of x-rays passed through an object onto a photographic plate-E.g. PneumoencephalogramInvolves temporarily replacing some of CSF with air Ventricles & fissures visible What can it tell us? Shows us where there is air in ventricles and subarachnoid space. If it is pushed out of space- possible tumor?-E.g. Cerebral AngiogramVisualizes cerebral circulatory systemInfuse radio-opaque dye through a cerebral arteryWhat can it tell us? If you’re getting a stroke. If blood vessel is not in the right location, then it could determine location of tumorComputerized Tomography (CT Scans)-X-ray beam and detector rotate around individual-Computer integrates info into a 2D image-Usually 8 horizontal pictures-Series of 2D images can be combined to create 3D image-Allows researchers to see inside of the brain-Pictures usually limited to horizontal plane-Can also see tumorMagnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-Measures waves emitted by hydrogen atoms when they are placed into magnetic field -Neural structures different densities of H atoms (e.g. water, iron , fat, etc)
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Psychology, medial temporal lobe, primary visual cortex, active brain areas