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HIST 1301 – The American Narrative – Tindall & ShiWhat is History? Written record of past eventsWhat is Pre-History? Looking at fossil recordChap. 1 – Collision of CulturesNew World culture predominantly “Stone Age”Where did New World People come from? Asia, via Beringia (Bering Strait).18,000 BC height of last Ice Age. 12,000 to 15,000 BC glaciers retreat and people migrate.Early CivilizationsMayans from 300 to 900 ADLarge cities in Southern Mexico and Northern Central America. Developed mathematics and astronomy with a calendar MUCH more accurate than the one we use today. What happened to them? Overpopulation and Starvation
Olmecs - Initial large civilization in Central Mexico, and they were co-opted by the Toltecs. Aztecs - Only high-functioning N American civilization at time of European contact.South America had the Chibchas in Colombia and the Incas (Quechuas) in Ecuador, Peru and Chile. Why did the two large civilizations fall to Spanish so easily?Superior technology and no biological defense for diseases Agricultural Revolution5000 BC first cultivation of corn, squash and beans. Yet vast majority of Native Americans remained hunter/gatherer societies.Only a few “great” civilizations in N Amer.Adena-Hopewell in S Ohio valley (800BC to 600AD). Mississippian (600 to 1000AD). Cahokia – 20,000 Hohokom-Anasazi (400BC to present) – Chaco CanyonN Amer had vast trading networks. Shells of Gulf Coast found in Ohio and Wyoming obsidian on Gulf Coast. Yet all major N Amer civilizations broke down prior to European arrival, except Aztec.Two Basic Types of Societies 1)Agricultural-Matrilineal2)Hunting/Gathering -Patrilineal
Most Native Americans classified today through linguistic similarities.Three basic regions inhabited at time of European contact:Eastern Woodlands: Algonquians – NE U.S. Iroquoian – Great Lakes Muskogeans – SE U.S.Great Plains: Nomadic tribes: Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Comanche, Apache, Sioux & Crow.Western Tribes: Tillamook, Chinook, Pomo & Chumash.Totally unprepared for European contact, since they had no defense vs European diseases.Expansion of EuropeTenth century Norsemen/Vikings established settlements in Newfoundland15thCentury in Europe – loose kingdoms held together through marriage, Dark Ages with Bubonic Plague (Black Death).Renaissance – Bold new thinking of science and learning.
Population Growth – Expanding economy created more money, too many people…New breed of Monarchs unifying large areas, Spain – Ferdinand & Isabella, Tudors of EnglandTechnical Breakthroughs – New intellectual curiosity spread by use of Printing Press.Factors that encouraged discovery:1)Urbanization4) New Technologies2)World Trade 5) Scientific Advancements3)Nation StatesSpain in 15thCenturyRecently reformed under Ferdinand and Isabella who took back the Iberian peninsula from Muslims in “Reconquista” led by El Cid.