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physiology exam 1 review - Exam 1 Review Lecture 1 -...

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Exam 1 ReviewLecture 1- Homeostasis HomeostasisoRegulating of measurable thingsExample: fluid volume, oxygen levels, electrolytes, ions, etc. Cellular Communication – Slide 12oCells can communicate with each other in a variety of waysGap junctionsGaps or “holes” in between cells so they can directly communicateSynaptic Neuronal communication via neurotransmittersoie epinephrine, norepinephrine, acetycholine, etc.Paracrine and autocrineReleases ligands or chemicals that can bind to receptors on neighboring cells EndocrineHormones that circulate through blood and bind to receptors on cells in different body sites Total Body water – Slide 13o60% of body weight (in kilograms) is waterBroken down to intracellular fluid and extracellular fluidoIntracellular fluid is 2/3 of that 60% oExtracellular fluid is 1/3 of that 60% Broken down into interstitial fluid and plasma volumeInterstitial fluid is what surrounds your cellsPlasma volume is in your bloodFeedback systemsoPositive feedbackRarely happensActivation of a system promotes or prolongs the “on” button of the systemoNegative feedbackMost common feedback systemActivation of a system produces a substance or inhibitory stimulus that stops the systemToo much of something is a bad thingLECTURE 2 – Fluids, Electrolytes, Resuscitation Patient case studyoShe is dehydratedBlood pressure is low
hydrostatic pressure is a type of pressure that is exerted by the blood onto the capillary walls in humans. As blood moves through the capillaries, the hydrostatic pressure drives the blood out of the capillary into the interstitial spaceBlood pressure = hydrostatic pressureHer fluids are not in her extracellular plasma compartmentoShe is hypervolemicShe has excess volume but they aren’t in the correct compartmentsoShe has ineffective circulationLow blood pressure oShe will benefit from additional fluidsProbably not because she already has excess fluidsTonicity oRELATIVE concentrationoYou are comparing two compartments – usually between the cell and the interstitial fluid (interstitial fluid = extracellular fluids)Something is higher, lower, or the same as somethingoIsotonic, hypotonic, hypertonicOsmolarityoConcentration of a solution expressed as the total number of solute particles per literoYou can quantify or give a number to this valueoNormal value of blood osmolarity is 300 mOsmoTakes into account things that CAN cross a semipermeable membrane (ie plasma membrane) as well as things that CANNOT crossMajor electrolytes of ECF and ICFoImportant ones Main ECF (extracellular fluid) electrolyteSodium and chlorideMain ICF (intracellular fluid) electrolytePotassiumProteinsOncotic pressureoPressure exerted by large solutesie proteinalbumino“pulls” or attracts water towards it
Hydrostatic pressureo

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Term
Spring
Professor
HURRELL

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