Exam III Study Guide

Exam III Study Guide - ISB 202 Exam 3 Study Questions...

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ISB 202 Exam 3 Study Questions Spring Semester 2009 1. Do viruses fit the definition of a living organism? What is a virus? “non-cellular, non-living infectious particle” Characteristics of a virus? 1. Has the following parts: a) Nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA ) -- single or double strand of either (not both) b) usually coated with protein (may be “naked”) c) may be surrounded by an envelope 2. It can NOT replicate by itself!!!! -- it must get a host cell to do it. Fortunately for us – it requires a specific type of cell found only in certain species. 2. Can a virus replicate by itself? NO 3. ***What protease (protein that is an enzyme) is absent or found in only small amounts with many people who have cancer? 4. What is a benign tumor? A benign tumor is a “neoplasm”- mass of cells that lost control over it’s cell cycle due to mutation in the chromosome or some other gene. Skin moles are an example. They are noncancerous neoplasms that grow very slowly, and the surface recognition proteins that keep cells within the tissue stay in tact. -They Don’t pose threat to the body unless become too large or irritating. 5. Are oncogenes “good?” Why or why not? Oncogenes are bad because they arewhat the protogene turns into when they become mutated. An oncogene is a tumor inducing agent. 6. What does the term “metastasized” mean? Metastasized means that it is SPREADING 7. About 90% of all lung cancer is preventable. True 8. What does the term “carcinogen” mean?
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A carcinogen is any substance that has been shown to trigger cancer. They get into our bodies by being inhaled, absorbed through the skin, or eaten. They may be industrial, food and drugs, or environmental. Easiest ones to avoid are Cigerrette smoke and sun. 9. What is the most common form of cancer in humans in the U.S.? Skin Cancer ***10. What can cause diseases AND also cancer? (Is it an organism?) 10. Ultraviolet light can cause skin cancer by damaging the cells’ DNA. What change occurs? The UV light damages the DNA denatures the proteins and damages the DNA. It damages the DNA by causing the the adjacent base pairs of the THYMINE to attach to eachother instead of the opposite strand of the double helix. 11. What are three ways carcinogens get into humans? Three ways that carcinogens get into human : Inhalation, Absorbed through skin, or injested/ eaten 12. What kind of cancer is very common in men, but never occurs in women? Prostate cancer 13. Can men get breast cancer? YES 14. Smoking is responsible for about 30% of all cancers in the U.S . TRUE!! 15. Carcinogens are found in tiny amounts all around us, including many of our food. True 16. A fast-growing “mole” on your skin should be checked out immediately, especially if it shows what four characteristics (ABCD)? A-Asymmetrical (uneven thickness)
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Exam III Study Guide - ISB 202 Exam 3 Study Questions...

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