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6_Chapt8_1 - Chapter 8 outline Chemical Bonding Ionic...

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Mary J. Bojan Page 1 BLB Chapter8 Part 1 Chapter 8 outline Chemical Bonding Ionic Bonding Lattice energy Exceptions to octet rule Covalent Bonding Bond Polarity Electronegativity Lewis Structures drawing Lewis structures deciding between alternate Lewis structures: formal charge resonance structures exceptions to the octet rule Bond properties Bond length, bond energy
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Mary J. Bojan Page 2 BLB Chapter8 Part 1 3 forms of bonding IONIC electrons traded to form separate ions both have noble gas core Na + Cl COVALENT electrons shared between a few nuclei distinct molecules valence e core e METALLIC electrons shared among all nuclei core e valence e “sea of electrons”
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Mary J. Bojan Page 3 BLB Chapter8 Part 1 For ionic and covalent bonding: 1. Valence electrons are involved in bonding . C 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 · C · · 4 valence electrons . S [Ne] 3s 2 3p 4 :S: · 6 valence electrons 2. Octet rule: elements tend to gain, lose or share electrons so as to gain an inert gas configuration. (Duet for H and He) Inert gases have 8 valence electrons
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Mary J. Bojan Page 4 BLB Chapter8 Part 1 IONIC BONDING Ionic bond is due to electrostatic attraction. Coulomb's Law: E Q 1 Q 2 d Q 1 - charge on 1 st atom Q 2 - charge on 2 nd atom d - distance between charges Electrons are exchanged to from separate ions with complete octets. Na + Cl 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 [Ne] [Ar] complete octets IONIC COMPOUNDS distinct +/ ions crystal lattice strong omnidirectional electrostatic bonds Characteristics 1. low electrical conductivity as solids (high as liquids) 2. very high melting, boiling points 3. hard but brittle 4. soluble only in polar solvents (water)
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