edpsych5-8 - 1/8 Chapter 5 Behavioral Theories of Learning...

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1/8 Chapter 5: Behavioral Theories of Learning I. Behavioral theory: Historical influences a. Pavlov: Classical Conditioning i. Classical Conditioning: process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response ii. Worked with dogs iii. Meat powder was placed near mouth of hungry dog dog salivated. This is the unconditioned stimulus. iv. Previously neutral stimulus paired with an unconditioned stimulus, neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus v. Bell and meat paired together, dog salivates at ringing of the bell. vi. Bell = conditioned stimulus b. Thorndike: Law of effect i. Law of effect: an act that is followed by a favorable effect is more likely to be repeated in similar situations; an act that is followed by an unfavorable effect is less likely to be repeated ii. Worked with cats iii. Stimuli that occurred after a behavior had an influence on future behaviors iv. Placed cats in boxes from which they had to escape to get food v. Over time, cats learned how to get out of the box more and more quickly by repeating the behaviors that led to escaped and not repeating the behaviors that were ineffective c. Skinner: Operant Conditioning i. Operant conditioning: the use of pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control the occurrence of behavior ii. Worked with rats and pigeons iii. Skinner Box with Rats: Has a bar that is easy for the rat to press, a food dispenser that can give the rat a pellet of food, and a water dispenser iv. Rats learned that when they press bar, they get food II. Social Learning Theory a. Bandura i. Modeling: imitation of others’ behavior ii. Vicarious experience: learning from others’ successes or failures iii. Observational learning 1. Attentional phase: paying attention to a model 2. Retention phase: modeling behavior you want others to imitate 3. Reproduction: try to match behavior to model’s 4. Motivational phase: modeling a behavior believing that it will increase own chances to be reinforced iv. Vicarious learning: learning based on observation of the consequences of others’ behavior v. Self regulated learning: 1. Self regulation: rewarding or punishing one’s own behavior b. Meichenbaum i. Cognitive behavior modification: procedures based on both behavioral and cognitive principles for changing one’s own behavior by means of self-talk and self-instruction
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2/8 ii. Self-instruction steps 1. An adult model performs a task while talking to self out loud (cognitive modeling) 2. The child performs the same task under the direction of model’s instructions (overt, external guidance) 3. The child performs the task while instructing self out loud (overt self-guidance) 4. The child whispers the instructions to self as he or she goes through the task (faded, overt self-guidance) 5. The child performs the task while guiding his or her performance via private speech (covert self-instruction) III. Principles of Behavioral Learning a. Consequences
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2009 for the course EDPSY 014 taught by Professor Mangold,susanl during the Fall '08 term at Penn State.

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edpsych5-8 - 1/8 Chapter 5 Behavioral Theories of Learning...

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