edpsych_12 - Chapter 12 Learners with exceptionalities: Any...

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Chapter 12 - Learners with exceptionalities: Any individuals whose physical, mental, or behavioral performance is so different from the norm – either higher or lower – that additional services are needed to meet the individuals needs - Disability: the limitation of a function, such as cognitive processing or physical or sensory abilities - Handicap: a condition imposed on a person with disabilities by society, the physical environment, or the person’s attitude - Mental Retardation: A condition, usually present at birth, that results in below- average intellectual skills and poor adaptive behavior o Causes Genetic inheritance Chromosomal abnormalities (Down’s Syndrome) Diseases passed between mother and fetus in utero (Rubella) Fetal chemical dependency syndromes (mother’s abuse of alcohol or cocaine during pregnancy) Birth accidents that result in oxygen deprivation Childhood diseases and accidents and accidents (encephalitis traumatic brain injury) Toxic contamination from the environment (lead poisoning) o Classifications Mild (IQs 50-55 to 70-75) intermittent Moderate (IQs 35-40 to 50 to 55) limited Severe (IQs 20-25 to 35-40) extensive Profound (IQs below 20-23) pervasive - Learning disabilities: Disorders that impede academic progress of people who are not mentally retarded or emotionally disturbed o Types Dyslexia: a severely impaired ability to read Dysgraphia: an impaired ability to write Dyscalculia: an impaired ability to learn mathematics o Characteristics Normal intelligence or even giftedness Discrepancy between intelligence and performance Delays in achievement Attention deficits or high distractibility Hyper activity or impulsiveness Poor motor coordination and spatial relation ability Difficulty solving problems Perceptual anomalies, such as reversing letters, words, or numbers Difficulty with self-motivated, self-regulated activities Over-reliance on teacher and peers for assignments
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Specific disorders of memory, thinking, or language Immature social skills o Teaching students with learning disabilities Emphasize prevention Teach learning-to-learn skills Give frequent feedback Use teaching strategies that engage students actively in lessons Use effective classroom management methods Coordinate supplementary services with classroom instruction o Attention deficit hyper-activity disorder (ADHD) A disorder characterized by difficulties maintaining attention because of a limited ability to concentrate; includes impulsive actions and hyperactive behavior - Communication disorders o Speech disorders: Oral articulation problems, occurring most frequently among children in the early elementary school grades Diagnosed by and treated by speech pathologists or speech therapists Teachers should be patient and never finish a student’s sentence or allow others to do so Teachers should avoid putting students who have speech problems
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edpsych_12 - Chapter 12 Learners with exceptionalities: Any...

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