Lecture 19

# Lecture 19 - PS 6 Assigned today 1 Isothermal Expansion of...

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1 PS 6 Assigned today

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2 Isothermal Expansion of an Ideal Gas Δ E = q + w = 0 So q = -w a) One-step expansion in which M 1 = 0. b) One-step expansion in which M 1 M 1 /4. c) Two-step expansion: M 1 M 1 /2 M 1 /4
3 Isothermal Expansion of an Ideal Gas Δ E = q + w = 0 So q = -w c) Two-step expansion: M 1 M 1 /2 M 1 /4

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4 Isothermal Expansion of an Ideal Gas Δ E = q + w = 0 So q = -w d) Six-step expansion: Decreasing M 1 stepwise to M 1 /4
5 Isothermal Expansion of an Ideal Gas Δ E = q + w = 0 So q = -w e) Infinite-step expansion: Decrease M 1 continuously to M 1 /4 Remove one grain of sand at a time. At any point, P gas = P ext and the expansion can be reversed by replacing a grain of sand. A process carried out infinitely slowly is “reversible”.

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6 Isothermal Compression Consider compression of gas from 4V 1 at pressure P 1 /4 to final volume V 1 at P 1 in 1, 2, …. infinite number of steps
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8 2 Molecules in Bulbs There are 4 possible microstates.
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Lecture 19 - PS 6 Assigned today 1 Isothermal Expansion of...

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