In%20Search%20of%20Two%20Congresses

In%20Search%20of%20Two%20Congresses - In In Search of Two...

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Unformatted text preview: In In Search of Two Cong Congresses POLS 4600 Kingston on the Hill Put me in Coach Put me in Coach Isakson and Chambliss on their day jobs Kingston cuts some ribbons Broun on Campus Broun on Campus The Dual Nature of Congress The Dual Nature of Congress Two distinct but related worlds Two distinct but related worlds 1. Lawmaking Institution Textbook Congress with rules and traditions Textbook Congress with rules and traditions Organizations Organizations exist that are specialized to political activity 2. 2. Assembly of local representatives Depend Depend on the folks back home to send them back back to Congress Need Need to represent a diverse set of constituents Legislators’ Tasks Legislators Tasks Lawmaker vs. Representative Lawmaker vs Representative – Spend lots of time at home – About 40% of time actually spent making About 40% of time actually spent making laws laws in committee or on the floor when in DC Constantly running for reelection Constantly running for reelection – Fundraising – Meetin’ the voters th The The Congress vs. our representative Congressional Approval Congressional Approval Congressional Approval Congressional Approval "Please tell me whether you think each of the following political officeholders deserves to be reelected or not: ". Yes No Unsure The U.S. representatives in your congressional district N=528 adults, MoE ± 4.5 (Form A) 58 39 4 Most members of Congress N=528 adults, MoE ± 4.5 (Form A) 42 53 5 Most Democratic members of Congress N=496 adults, MoE ± 4.5 (Form B) 50 44 6 Most Republican members of Congress N=496 adults, MoE ± 4.5 (Form B) 38 58 5 Historical Basis Historical Basis Article Article I – Congress will be the chief lawCongress will be the chief law making body – Enumerated powers powers – House vs. Senate Representational Styles St – Burke (Trustee) – Delegate Evolution of Congress Evolution of Congress Representative Democracy predates our Re Congress – House of Burgesses (VA) – Bay Colony (MA) Colony (MA) – Colonial governors had a veto New Taxes on colonies paid for governors salaries New Taxes on colonies paid for governors salaries Soon Soon after First Continental Congress met Second Second Continental Congress passed Declaration of Independence Independence Fought Fought the war under the Articles of Confederation – No Executive Their Their salary came from the colonies The Virginia Plan The Virginia Plan This plan, introduced by Edmund Randolph, also This plan, introduced by Edmund Randolph, also from from Virginia, shifted the focus of deliberation from patching up the confederation to considering what was required to create a considerin national union. Its centerpiece was a bicameral legislature. Its – Members of the lower chamber apportioned among the states by population directly elected the states by population & directly elected. – Lower chamber would elect members of the upper chamber, executive and courts – Can veto state laws The New Jersey Plan The New Jersey Plan Alternative proposed by New Jersey Alternative proposed by New Jersey delegate delegate William Paterson in response to the Virginia Plan. Given Given its quick creation, it had its own faults: it failed to propose the organization of the executive and judiciary. – Single-house chamber with equal Singlerepresentation for each state – Legislature can levy taxes and veto state legislation legislation The The Great Compromise Fashioning the National Legislature th i The committee that the convention appointed to The committee that the convention appointed to come come up with a solution to the stalemate found one that was Solomon-like in nature. SolomonEach Each side got one of the two legislative chambers fashioned to its liking. – The upper chamber (Senate) would be composed of two delegates sent from each state legislature who would serve six would serve a six-year term. term – Madison’s population-based, elective legislature populationbecame the House of Representatives. Article Article I – The Legislature The Legislature Longest and most detailed Longest and most detailed Section Section I – House and Senate Section II Section II - House – Elected every two years by the people – Representation based on population based on population Section Section III – Senate – Elected every six years by state legislature every six years by state legislature – VP is president of the Senate (breaks ties) impeachments – Try impeachments Article Article I – The Legislature The Legislature Section IV States run elections Section IV – States run elections Section Section V – Internal operations – Determine own rules and proceedings own rules and proceedings Section Section VI – Payment Section VII Section VII – – Bills for raising revenue shall begin in the House House – Bills must pass House and Senate and overrides (2/3 of House and – Veto and overrides (2/3rd of House and Senate) Senate) Article Article I – The Legislature The Legislature Section Section VIII – Congress can provide for “common defense and general welfare” by: – Make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution the power vested by the constitution – Collect taxes, borrow money, regulate commerce, coin money, post offices, declare war, rule over Washington D.C. Sections Sections IX – – End of slave trade shall not be before 1808 – Habeas Corpus, Ex post facto laws Section Section X – States cannot: States cannot: – Enter into treaties with other states – Coin money – Impose tariffs tariffs Separation of Powers Separation of Powers Members cannot be arrested during Members cannot be arrested during session session or traveling to and from Congress The Congress approves the design of the The Congress approves the design of the executive executive branch – Declare War and Approve treaties The The Congress designed the judiciary and defines appellate jurisdictions – Approves judicial nominees Separate Branches, Shared Powers Separate Branches, Shared Powers Branches have control over the others Branches have control over the others President President – – – – – – – Can convene a special session convene special session State of the Union Veto Appoint officials/Ambassadors with Senate approval Enforce Laws Negotiate treaties but needs 2/3rd Senate approval Commander in Chief vs. Declaration of War Separate Branches, Shared Powers Separate Branches, Shared Powers Judicial Review Judicial Review – Interpreting laws and determine their constitutionality constitutionality – Restraint vs. Activism Congress can overrule decision with new Congress can overrule decision with new laws laws or Amendments – Voting Rights Act Renewal Ri ht Institutional Evolution Institutional Evolution Institutionalization – from unpredictable to Inst fr to predictable For For something to become an institution it must be: – Well bounded Can differentiate members, hard to get in, leaders come from the Can differentiate members, hard to get in, leaders come from the organization organization – Complex Division Division of labor – Automatic rather than discretionary methods for conducting internal business Institutional Evolution Institutional Evolution Size Size of the Congress changed over time – – – – Balance size of chamber with representation 435 House 100 Senate Size of staff grows as well Seats Seats given out based on mathematical formula – This is called apportionment http://www.ctl.ua.edu/math103/apportionment/appmeth.htm if you are really htt if interested Every Every 10 years, Census takes place – Actual Enumeration – Undercounts, overcounts Institutional Evolution Institutional Evolution Establishment of boundaries Establishment of boundaries Rank Rank and file – 18th and 19th Century turnover frequently was 19 over 50% – 20th Century, highest incident of turnover was Century highest incident of turnover was 37.2 37.2 percent Stability of membership increased over time Stability of membership increased over time Institutional Evolution Institutional Evolution Establishment of boundaries Establishment of boundaries Leadership Leadership – Pre 1900, means years of service for the 1900 th speaker was 6 – Post 1900, mean years of service for speaker Post 1900 mean years of service for speaker was was 26 – Few speakers today leave for other political Few speakers today leave for other political jobs jobs Many died in office Many died in office Legislative Workload Legislative Workload Early on, part-time job Early on part job – In session 9 of 24 months Increased over time Increased over time – 10,000 bills introduced – 500 enacted into law Congress Congress now deals with issues once left to to the states Issues are now more complex Issues Structure and Procedure Structure and Procedure Growth of Committees Growth of Committees – Ad hoc to standing – Occasional Reorganization Reorganization Change Change in leadership positions – Party leaders not in constitution Debate Debate now more civilized – Brooks vs. Sumner Norms Norms become codified Institutional Evolution Institutional Evolution Internal Complexity Committees Internal Complexity – Committees (1) (1) Early – few standing committees – Whole House debates before going elsewhere Ad Ad hoc or executive agent (2) Still (2) Still early – President controlled committee committee assignments – Jefferson Institutional Evolution Institutional Evolution Internal Complexity Committees Internal Complexity – Committees (3) (3) Next – Speaker Clay made appointments to further his agenda appointments to further his agenda (4) (4) Near 1910 committees saw institutional independence from party – Fixed jurisdiction – Fixed membership – Leadership determined by seniority (5) (5) This changed in the 1970s House Committees House Committees Committee Committee on Agriculture Committee Committee on Appropriations Committee Committee on Armed Services Committee Committee on the Budget Committee on Education and Labor Committee on Education and Labor Committee Committee on Energy and Commerce Committee Committee on Financial Services Committee on Foreign Affairs Committee Committee Committee on Homeland Security Committee Committee on House Administration Committee Committee on the Judiciary Committee Committee on Natural Resources Committee Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Committee Committee on Rules Committee Committee on Science and Technology Committee Committee on Small Business Committee Committee on Standards of Official Conduct Committee Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure Committee Committee on Veterans' Affairs Committee Committee on Ways and Means House House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence Leadership Evolution Leadership Evolution Around 1920 Majority Leader became Around 1920 Majority Leader became a full full time job – Elected by the party members by the party members – No longer committee chairs Elaborate whip system a 20th Century El 20 innovation Increased Resources Increased Resources Part time job to career Part – Careerism increased around 1900 Stronger Stronger party attachment made reelection easier Power of Congress grew so service became more attractive Power 1930s 1930s – air conditioning installed Seniority Seniority system firmly in place Increased workload Increased workload New New Office Buildings Increased staff support and funding Increased staff support and funding Institutionalized Institutionalized Decision Making Seniority system (1910) Seniority system (1910) – Rank on committee determined by number of years served years served – Committee spot is a property right – Become chair if you serve long enough chair if you serve long enough Summary Summary Members serve dual constituencies and Members serve dual constituencies and maybe maybe more House and to some degree Senate has House and to some degree Senate has changed changed over time – Become more institutionalized – Power began to decentralize ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2009 for the course POLS 4600 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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