Depth Distance Motion - Depth, Distance & Motion:...

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Module 1: Introduction to Depth and Distance: Distance is important for survival Depth perception allows us to correctly decide if we want to approach or avoid objects Eg. Walking off a cliff, not knowing how close we are to hungry bear We can make a mental 3D picture of the world by using top down and bottom up processing New visual input from a 2 dimensional retinal surface is processed along with our knowledge of environmental objects and surfaces to create this 3D picture Aided by many other cues Module 2: Monocular and Binocular Cues: Monocular: requires 1 eye Three types: Accommodation: involves changes of the shape of the lens as you focus on objects at different distances Only works for distances up to about 2m because the lens can only change shape so much Motion: 1) Motion parallax: when we pass by a scene, objects in that scene move past us at different speeds depending on how far away these objects are from us Objects closer to us pass faster than ones far away 2) Optic flow: the changing optical projection of a scene that is caused by the motion of the observer as well as motion of objects within the scene As you get closer, an object will get bigger, not only does the size of this object change as you move, but so does the entire visual scene Objects that are closer to you will move more in the visual scene and change more in size more than distant objects Pictorial: 1) Interposition: most useful when objects are familiar and you know what they are supposed to look like The Gestalt principle of closure allows us to obtain information from unfamiliar objects If one circle is on top of another circle, you see one full circle and one crescent, you are more likely to assume that the bottom crescent is actually a circle 2) Relative Size: if you have two objects that are the same shape but different sizes, the larger one will be perceived to be closer Also, if you see a small car, we are familiar enough with cars that we would assume that it was far away This relates to optic flow because one way we avoid vehicle collisions is by monitoring the rate of expansion of the approaching car on our retina When an object is closer to us, it projects a larger image on our retinas than if it was far away
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Depth Distance Motion - Depth, Distance & Motion:...

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