Evolution 3 - Evolution 3: Module 1: Introduction to...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Evolution 3: Module 1: Introduction to Altruism: Many animals do not have social interaction like humans. They grow, live and die alone. Why do we as humans develop social interactions? This leads to the question of why did social behaviour evolve? Social Behaviour: behaviour in which the actions of one individual affects the reproductive success of another individual We can further divide social behaviours into actions that help others and actions that hurt others. Social behaviour includes everything from parental care, mating and foraging for food. Effect on actor’s well being Effect on recipient’s well being + - + Cooperation Altruism - Selfishness Spite This table represents the four kinds of social behaviour that individuals can engage in. Eg. Is the actor does something that helps both himself and the recipient, then he is being cooperative. Fitness: reproductive success; the ability to produce offspring and successfully raise them to adulthood Usually things that improve the well-being of an individual will also increase fitness. That is not always the case. Eg. Sometimes animals will put themselves in harmful situations to reproduce which decreases their well being but increases their fitness. It pays to be selfish, to produce more copies of your gene, than another gene, a form of competition, makes it easy to see how selfishness can evolve. Why would an individual ever help another if it pays to be selfish? Example of altruism: you spend time and energy trying to teach a member of your hockey team to be a better hockey player. It looks like you are unselfishly donating your time for no benefit to yourself, however in the long run, it’s better for you because you end up winning more games. Increasing the fitness of others can sometimes improve your own fitness prospects. Cost of teaching < benefit of being on the winning team Module 2: Group Selection: Adaptations aren’t for the good of the group or for the good of the species, they are for the good of the gene. What matters is that the increase in group success translates into better success for the metaphorical helping gene. Example. Many birds species forage for food in groups. This seems like it would make competition for food more intense because more hungry mouths are nearby. Actually it can be useful to have more individuals looking around for it. If you happen to be the lucky one, some may come steal some from
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/17/2009 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 1XX3 taught by Professor Kim during the Spring '09 term at McMaster University.

Page1 / 4

Evolution 3 - Evolution 3: Module 1: Introduction to...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online