Chapter 9 Outline (edited by Cang Nguyen on Ultimeaciax-NB @ 12-20-2006 2-56-00 PM)

Chapter 9 Outline (edited by Cang Nguyen on Ultimeaciax-NB @ 12-20-2006 2-56-00 PM)

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Chapter 9 Airborne Bacterial Diseases Introduction 9.1 Diseases of the Upper Respiratory Tract Streptococcal Diseases Can Be Mild to Severe o Streptococci are a group of encapsulated, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive cocci o Streptococci can be divided into two groups, α-hemolytic and ß- hemolytic, based on how they affect sheep red blood cells o They can also be classified according to variants of a carbohydrate in the cell wall o Streptococcus pyogenes is the most common species o The pathogenicity of S. pyogenes is enhanced by M protein, which helps it adhere to pharyngeal tissue and retard phagocytosis o S. pyogenes causes streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat), entering the upper respiratory tract through respiratory droplets o Some patients with strep throat may develop scarlet fever, exhibiting a rash caused by erythrogenic exotoxins o Strep throat and scarlet fever can be treated by antibiotics o Rheumatic fever is a serious complication affecting the joints and heart, causing permanent heart damage called rheumatic heart disease o Acute glomerulonephritus is a rare inflammatory response to M proteins which may lead to renal damage Diphtheria Is a Life-Threatening Illness o Diphtheria is a local infection of the throat caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae o C. diphtheriae bacilli remain in clumps after multiplying, forming a palisade layer o Diphtheria is acquired by respiratory droplet transmission o The bacteria produce an exotoxin that inhibits translation, resulting
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Chapter 9 Outline (edited by Cang Nguyen on Ultimeaciax-NB @ 12-20-2006 2-56-00 PM)

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