Chapter 12 Outline (edited by Cang Nguyen on Ultimeaciax-NB @ 1-12-2007 10-56-00 PM)

Chapter 12 Outline (edited by Cang Nguyen on Ultimeaciax-NB @ 1-12-2007 10-56-00 PM)

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Chapter 12 Sexually Transmitted, Contact, and Miscellaneous Bacterial Diseases Introduction 12.1 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Syphilis Is a Chronic, Infectious Disease o Syphilis is one of the top five most reported microbial diseases in the U.S. o It is caused by Treponema palladium, a spirochete for which humans are the only host o Primary syphilis is characterized by a lesion, or chancre, where the bacteria entered the body o Secondary syphilis involves fever, skin rash, and swollen lymph nodes o A chronic latent stage of 3-30 years follows in which relapses of secondary syphilis occur o Tertiary syphilis involves formation of gummas that can cause: weakening and bursting of blood vessels degeneration of spinal cord tissue brain damage leading to personality and judgment changes and insanity o Congenital syphilis can occur in the fetus of a pregnant woman, leading to stillbirth or birth defects like Hutchinson’s triad Gonorrhea Can Be an Infection in Any Sexually Active Person o Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae o In females it can spread to the fallopian tubes, causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), possible sterility, ectopic pregnancy, or salpingitis o Many affected females are asymptomatic o Males experience tingling of the penis, pain when urinating, penile discharge, swollen lymph nodes and painful testicles It can cause infertility in males o Gonorrhea can also affect the pharynx, rectum, or eyes o Infants can contract gonococcal ophthalmia while passing through the birth canal Chlamydial Urethritis Can Be Asymptomatic o Chlamydial urethritis (chlamydia) is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis o C. trachomatis cannot make its own ATP and must rely on the host cell for energy o Chlamydia is the most commonly reported notifiable disease in the U.S. o C. trachomatis has two phases: the infectious elementary body and the noninfectious reticulate body
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o Chlamydia is one of several diseases known as a non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) o 85-90% of infected individuals are asymptomatic o Spreading to the fallopian tubes can cause salpinigitis o Left untreated it can cause PID o Males complain of painful urination and watery discharge It can cause infertility in males o Chlamydia can also occur in the pharynx or anus o Newborns can contract chlamydial ophthalmia during delivery o Infection can be detected by a fluorescent antibody test or DNA analysis o Species of Chlamydia are used to investigate the evolution of pathogenicity Chancroid Causes Painful Genital Ulcers o Chancroid (soft chancre) is caused by Haemophilus ducreyi o It is common in areas with low public health standards and tropical
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Chapter 12 Outline (edited by Cang Nguyen on Ultimeaciax-NB @ 1-12-2007 10-56-00 PM)

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