Chapter 21 Outline (edited by Cang Nguyen on Ultimeaciax-NB @ 1-10-2007 7-27-00 PM)

Chapter 21 Outline (edited by Cang Nguyen on Ultimeaciax-NB @ 1-10-2007 7-27-00 PM)

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Chapter 21 Immunity and Serology Introduction 21.1 Immunity to Disease Acquired Immunity Can Result by Actively Producing Antibodies to an Antigen o Active immunity occurs when the body’s immune system responds to antigens by producing antibodies and lymphocytes o Naturally acquired active immunity follows illness or pathogen exposure o Artificially acquired active immunity occurs through vaccination o Vaccines contain treated or altered microbes, toxins, or parts of microbes A primary immune response occurs, and memory cells are formed, but the person does not usually become ill There Are Several Types of Vaccine Strategies o Live, attenuated vaccines contain weakened microbes that multiply at only low levels, inducing a strong immune response Organisms can revert to a virulent form and cause disease A single-dose vaccine can combine vaccines for different diseases Vaccines using attenuated bacteria are difficult and not widely used o Inactivated vaccines contain killed pathogens, which induce a weaker immune response Booster shots are required to maintain immunity They are safer than attenuated vaccines because they cannot cause disease o Toxoid vaccines contain inactivated toxins (toxoids) Since the product is inactivated, booster shots are required o Subunit vaccines contain only those parts of the antigens that stimulate a strong immune response Recombinant DNA technology can be used to create recombinant subunit vaccines Subunits cannot cause disease o Conjugate vaccines are created by attaching bacterial capsule polysaccharides to a toxoid, eliciting a strong immune response o DNA vaccines depend on the ability of some cells to take up and translate foreign DNA and display the resulting proteins, inducing
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2009 for the course MIC 201 taught by Professor Lacroix during the Spring '08 term at Rhode Island.

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Chapter 21 Outline (edited by Cang Nguyen on Ultimeaciax-NB @ 1-10-2007 7-27-00 PM)

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