Chapter 24 Slide

Chapter 24 Slide - BIO 205 Chapter 24 Antimicrobial Drugs...

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BIO 205 Chapter 24
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Antimicrobial Drugs
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Alexander Fleming’s Serendipitous Discovery of Penicillin Ushered in the Era of Antibiotics Penicillium mold produces a substance that kills gram-positive bacteria
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Antimicrobial Agents Have a Number of Important Properties Synthetic agents are made in a pharmaceutical lab Antibiotics are products of or derived from living microorganisms Semisynthetic drugs include synthetic and antibiotic elements
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Selective toxicity means that a drug should harm the pathogen but not the host The toxic dose of a drug is the concentration causing harm to the host The therapeutic dose is the concentration eliminating pathogens in the host Together, the toxic and therapeutic doses are used to formulate the chemotherapeutic index
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Drugs have a range of pathogens on which they will work (antimicrobial spectrum) Broad spectrum drugs affect many taxonomic groups Narrow spectrum drugs affect only a few pathogens
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The Synthetic Antibacterial Agents
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Sulfanilamide and Other Sulfonamides Target Specific Metabolic Reactions Sulfonamides out compete essential folic acid components for binding sites in a bacterial enzyme They prevent nucleic acid synthesis and DNA replication
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Other Synthetic Antimicrobials Have Additional Bacterial Cell Targets Isoniazid interferes with cell wall synthesis in species of Mycobacterium Quinolones block DNA synthesis in bacteria
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Chapter 24 Slide - BIO 205 Chapter 24 Antimicrobial Drugs...

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