MIC201_Lecture_Notes

MIC201_Lecture_Notes - Microbiology 201 Dr. Jay F. Sperry...

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1 Microbiology 201 Dr. Jay F. Sperry Room 117 Morrill Hall I. Objectives of the Course {Mine versus Yours}? A. Breadth of Microbiology B. where does it fit into your world? C. Everyday interaction with microbes. II. Textbook: Fundamentals of Microbiology , 5th ed. 1997 Alcamo III. Grading [handout] - - very slight scale MICROBIOLOGY - "The study of small organisms" - bacteria, yeasts, molds, algae, protozoa and viruses: plus immunity {microbe interactions with macrobe} SURVEY OF MICROBES PROCARYOTES EUCARYOTES bacteria & cyanobacteria all else a) nuclear membrane b ) n u c l e o l i s c ) o r g a n e l l e s d ) m i t o s i s e) flagella are complex Bacteria - contain a single chromosome, divide by fission, can grow & exist in a wide variety of environments. Rickettsia, Chlamydia & Mycoplasma - very small unusal Viruses - Are they alive? DNA or RNA + protein replicate only in a host cell = obligate intracellular parasite cause numerous diseases {smaller than bacteria} Protista (Protozoa) - Eucaryotes (animals) - mitosis; blood and tissue diseases Fungi - Molds & Yeasts - no chlorophyll; fermentation and food, industrial products, antibiotics; decomposers of dead organic matter Algae - chlorophyll containers (chloroplasts) - diatoms and dinoflagellates TAXONOMY
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2 Whittaker (1969) Five Kingdoms I. Procaryotae - bacteria, bluegreen algae & archaebacteria II. Fungi - Yeasts & Molds III. Protista - protozoa IV. Plantae V. Animalia Woese (1988) Three Domains I. Eubacteria II. Archea (more related to the Eukarya than to the Eubacteria) III. Eukarya (Kingdoms: Fungi, Protista, Plantae & Animalia) Genus species (strain) Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (1923) first publication Division II Bacteria - 19 parts Identification - a) size; b) shape; c) motion or lack of; d) pathogenic for humans or animals; e) growth requirements; f) staining reactions; g) antigenic nature; h) DNA base ratio or DNA-DNA homology. Size - µ m = 1 millionth of a meter = 1 thousanth of a mm Protozoa 100 µ m (0.1mm) Fungi 10 X 40 µ m Bacteria 0.3 - 2 µ m X 0.5 - 20 µ m Viruses 20 - 250 nm [0.02-0.25 µ m] Microscopes Light Microscope - used for discerning: size, shape, staining characteristics and microscopic arrangement Limit of Resolution = 0.2 - 0.25 µ m with an oil immersion objective Darkfield Microscopy - Inverts the image; good for thin microbes ( Treponema pallidum ) Electron Microscope - Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) & Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) = Total Magnification about 20 X 10 6 X (observe object 1 nm) Magnets act as lenses for focussing SEM - gives a three-dimensional image 10 12 bacteria/g dry weight (2 X 10 11 bacteria/g wet weight) Food Microbiology
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3 Bacteria and molds eat the same foods that we do! Important constituents: organic matter , water content and pH A. Spoilage [a waste of money and a source of illness] 1. spices - a cover up (also sauces) for unpleasant appearance, odor or taste 2. food intoxications and food infections may not be obvious 3. contaminants: airborne, animal intestines, soil, contaminated water, insects, humans involved in food processing B. Conditions of the food : (1) water content, minimum of 18-20%; (2) pH down to 5 for
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MIC201_Lecture_Notes - Microbiology 201 Dr. Jay F. Sperry...

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