chapter3 - CHM 227 9-14 CHP 3 Problems: 3.1-17, 20-29, 34....

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CHM 227 9-14 CHP 3 Problems: 3.1-17, 20-29, 34. 3.0 Orbitals and Bonding Use molecular orbitals to better understand bonds, reactivity, and resonance. 3.1 Atomic Orbitals Rules for deriving the electron configuration for an atom: 1. Place each electron in the lowest-energy orbital. 2. Each orbital contains a maximum of two electrons with opposite spin (Pauli Exclusion Principle) 3. Electrons first must occupy degenerate orbitals singly before addition of an electron with the opposite spin. Figure 3.1 and 3.2 3.2 Molecular Orbitals Bonding in molecules involves orbitals that extend around more than one atom – molecular orbitals. Most of the rules for atomic orbitals (AOs) also apply for molecular orbitals (MOs). The simplest picture of MOs is a result of overlap of AOs. Two atomic orbitals are combined to form two molecular orbitals. When the AO’s have the same mathematical sign the MO is stabilized – bonding orbital. When the AO’s have opposite sign the MO is destabilized – anti-bonding orbital. Figure 3.3 and 3.4 The bond formed between two hydrogen atoms is an example of a sigma bond. Sigma bonds are spherically symmetric about the inter-nuclear axis allowing free rotation. While the most accurate depiction of molecules has MOs which extend over all of the
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chapter3 - CHM 227 9-14 CHP 3 Problems: 3.1-17, 20-29, 34....

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