chapter7 - CHP 7 Problems 7.1-17, 20-23, 25, 27-28, 31....

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Stereochemistry II. Sterioisomers can arise from the tetrahedral geometry of singly bonded carbon. 7.1 Chiral Molecules The presence of four different groups attached to a central tetrahedral carbon results in an additional type of isomerism. 2-chlorobutane is an example of a molecule which has two isomeric structures that are non-superimposable mirror images. Molecules with non- superimposable mirror images are termed chiral. The stereoisomers are called enantiomers. 7.2 Recognizing Chiral Molecules Carbons that have four different groups are termed chiral centers (asymmetric centers). Any molecule with a one chiral center is chiral. Alternatively, one can examine the symmetry of the molecule. If a molecule contains a plane of symmetry (mirror plane) passing through the center of a molecule the molecule is not chiral. Examples 7.3 Assigning Configuration The configuration of the enantiomer can be designated using the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules using the following steps. 1. Assign priorities from 1 to 4 for the four groups bound to the chiral center using the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules. 1 is high. 4 is low. 2. View the molecule so that the bond from the chiral center to group number 4 is in the back. Determine the direction of the three remaining groups from 1 to 2 to 3. If this progression is clockwise the configuration is
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chapter7 - CHP 7 Problems 7.1-17, 20-23, 25, 27-28, 31....

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