Syntax II Manuscript

Syntax II Manuscript - An Introduction to Syntactic...

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An Introduction to Syntactic Analysis and Theory Hilda Koopman Dominique Sportiche Edward Stabler
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1 A Short Introduction 1 2 Morphology: Starting with words 7 3 Syntactic analysis introduced 43 4 Clauses 93 5 Many other phrases: frst glance 109 6 X-bar theory and a frst glimpse oF discontinuities 131 7 The model oF syntax 151 8 Binding and the hierarchical nature oF phrase structure 173 9 Apparent violations oF Locality oF Selection 197 10 Raising and Control 213 11 Summary and review 233 iii
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1 A Short Introduction Linguistics is a domain in which language or languages are studied. The no- tion of language or languages is a common sense notion. In general, it is not sufficient or very informative to deFne a Feld of inquiry by naming the com- mon sense entities it studies. There may be many di±erent Felds studying more or less the same common sense entities. ²or example one can study the oceans from the point of view of a biologist, a climate oceanographer, a plate tectonics physicist, a zoologist, a botanist, a chemist. .. It is useful and necessary to give an idea of the type of questions that one is asking about these entities. If one tries to name as precisely as possible the entity that a large portion of modern linguistics studies, one could say it is the "language faculty" in humans. This attribute includes among other things the capacity that hu- mans have to physically or mentally manifest their thoughts, to express lin- guistically new and original ideas, in principle in inFnitely many ways. This attribute also underlies the ability to understand others, to have coherent conversations, to deduce other people’s intentions from their utterances etc. .. Investigating this complex and in many ways mysterious language fac- ulty looks like a daunting task. One initial problem is to try to formulate sensible questions about it, that provides a framework within which incre- mental knowledge about this faculty can be gained. We can start with the observation of a simple case of linguistic behavior. We use language. An acoustic wave hits our ear. This vibration is trans- formed into nerve impulses which reach our brains, where this nervous signal is somehow transformed into an idea, a thought: this is speech per- ception or recognition. Inversely, an idea starts forming in our mind which we may begin to manifest physically through speech or signs: this is speech production. These simple observations evoke the following questions: What exactly goes on when we produce or recognize speech? How does perception or production unfold in real time, and what is its material sub- strate? 1
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2 1. A SHORT INTRODUCTION In the case of language, the nervous system, particularly the brain, seems to possess algorithmic properties of information management and process- ing: it can store and manipulate information. These properties somehow emerge from the organization of cerebral matter. It is customary nowadays to think that this accomplished by brain circuitry.
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Syntax II Manuscript - An Introduction to Syntactic...

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