1 Pharmaceutical Technology Capsules Dr. Bhawna Bhatt Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Research Sector – 3, Pushp Vihar New Delhi Prof. S.S. Agrawal Principal Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Research Sector – 3, Pushp Vihar New Delhi (24-07-2007) CONTENTS Introduction Raw material for Capsules Hard Capsules Capsule Shell filling Capsule filling devices Cleaning and Packaging Soft Gelatin Capsules Seamless Gelatin Capsules Quality control of capsules Packaging and storage of capsules Capsule Administration Recent updates in Capsule technology Keywords Hard and soft capsules, liquid filled hard gelatin capsules, base adsorption, altered release capsules
2 Introduction Capsule is the most versatile of all dosage forms. Capsules are solid dosage forms in which one or more medicinal and inert ingredients are enclosed in a small shell or container usually made of gelatin. There are two types of capsules, “hard” and “soft”. The hard capsule is also called “two piece” as it consists of two pieces in the form of small cylinders closed at one end, the shorter piece is called the “cap” which fits over the open end of the longer piece, called the “body”. The soft gelatin capsule is also called as “one piece”. Capsules are available in many sizes to provide dosing flexibility. Unpleasant drug tastes and odors can be masked by the tasteless gelatin shell. The administration of liquid and solid drugs enclosed in hard gelatin capsules is one of the most frequently utilized dosage forms. Advantages of Capsules • Capsules mask the taste and odor of unpleasant drugs and can be easily administered. • They are attractive in appearance • They are slippery when moist and, hence, easy to swallow with a draught of water. • As compared to tablets less adjuncts are required. • The shells are physiologically inert and easily and quickly digested in the gastrointestinal tract. • They are economical • They are easy to handle and carry. • The shells can be opacified (with titanium dioxide) or colored, to give protection from light. Disadvantages of Capsules • The drugs which are hygroscopic absorb water from the capsule shell making it brittle and hence are not suitable for filling into capsules. • The concentrated solutions which require previous dilution are unsuitable for capsules because if administered as such lead to irritation of stomach. Raw Materials for Capsules The raw materials used in the manufacture of both hard and soft gelatin capsules are similar. Both contain gelatin, water, colorants and optional materials such as process aids and preservatives. 1. Gelatin – gelatin is the major component of the capsules and has been the material from which they have traditionally been made. Gelatin has been the raw material of choice because of
3 the ability of a solution to gel to form a solid at a temperature just above ambient temperate conditions, which enables a homogeneous film to be formed rapidly on a mould pin.
- Summer '16
- Physics, Shell, Gelatin, gelatin capsules, hard gelatin capsules, soft gelatin capsules